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Table 1 Characteristics of subjects according to the level of blood pressure variability (n = 144)

From: Visit-to-visit blood pressure variability is a marker of cardiac diastolic function and carotid atherosclerosis

  Blood pressure variability
  Low variability Middle variability High variability P value
n 48 48 48  
Age (years) 72.3 ± 9.1 70.8 ± 8.5 74.7 ± 8.7 0.101a
Male 24 (50.0%) 21 (43.8%) 19 (39.6%) 0.586b
Blood pressure measurements (times) 9.1 ± 3.1 9.5 ± 2.6 9.7 ± 2.8 0.569a
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 130.2 ± 10.1 132.0 ± 12.2 131.5 ± 16.9 0.801a
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 72.1 ± 11.0 72.8 ± 11.8 71.2 ± 10.3 0.780a
Pulse pressure (mmHg) 58.1 ± 12.3 59.2 ± 11.5 60.3 ± 15.4 0.728a
Heart rate (beats/min) 73.8 ± 9.8 70.5 ± 6.8 72.3 ± 6.9 0.248a
Antihypertensive medication 33 (68.8%) 38 (79.2%) 41 (85.4%) 0.140b
  Calcium-channel blocker 27 (56.3%) 30 (62.5%) 34 (70.8%) 0.331b
  Renin-angiotensin antagonist 20 (41.7%) 19 (39.6%) 24 (50.0%) 0.553b
  β-blocker 6 (12.5%) 9 (18.8%) 3 (6.3%) 0.180b
Fasting plasma glucose (mg/dL) 116.3 ± 41.5 118.8 ± 47.8 115.5 ± 38.9 0.923a
HbA1c (%) 6.12 ± 0.94 5.98 ± 0.80 5.82 ± 0.60 0.173a
Glucose-lowering medication 8 (16.7%) 8 (16.7%) 8(16.7%) 1.000b
LDL-cholesterol (mg/dl) 114.2 ± 24.0 118.0 ± 28.2 124.6 ± 25.5 0.146a
Lipid-lowering medication 13 (27.1%) 16 (33.3%) 17 (35.4%) 0.660b
Uric acid (mg/dL) 5.50 ± 1.26 5.25 ± 1.29 5.38 ± 1.32 0.643a
Body mass index (kg/m2) 24.13 ± 3.87 24.03 ± 3.20 24.19 ± 3.56 0.977a
eGFR (ml/min/1.73 m2) 68.0 ± 19.4 67.5 ± 15.9 64.9 ± 17.8 0.667a
Proteinuria 4 (8.3%) 6 (12.5%) 7 (14.6%) 0.627b
Cardiovascular disease 9 (18.8%) 8 (16.7%) 7 (14.6%) 0.861b
  1. Data are means ± standard deviation or n (%). Low, middle, and high variability are defined as the lowest (<8.29 mmHg), middle (8.29–10.99 mmHg), and highest (>10.99 mmHg) tertiles of the standard deviation of systolic blood pressure, respectively.
  2. LDL-cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate.
  3. aAnalysis of covariance; bχ2 test.