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Table 1 Baseline clinical and laboratory characteristics and the number of subjects with various outcomes according to P wave duration among type 2 diabetes patients

From: Prolonged P wave duration predicts stroke mortality among type 2 diabetic patients with prevalent non-major macrovascular disease

  P wave duration  
Variables <114 ms ≥114 ms P
N 569 170  
Age (years) 57.5 ± 5.29 59.0 ± 4.21 0.001
Duration of diabetes (years) 7.9 ± 3.9 8.0 ± 3.9 0.649
Total cholesterol, mmol/L 6.68 ± 1.66 6.81 ± 1.98 0.381
HDL cholesterol, mmol/L 1.25 ± 0.363 1.19 ± 0.310 0.051
Triglycerides, mmol/L 2.38 ± 2.58 3.10 ± 4.08 0.006
Glycosylated hemoglobin A1, % 9.90 ± 2.39 10.1 ± 1.93 0.257
BMI, kg/m2 29.0 ± 5.23 30.2 ± 5.13 0.007
Urinary protein, mg/L 220 ± 445 396 ± 879 0.001
Physical activity, MET 4.1 ± 1.9 3.85 ± 1.8 0.091
Heart rate, bpm 74 ± 13 75 ± 15 0.368
Women, % 50.6 41.2 0.031
Current smokers, % 16.7 17.6 0.772
Hypertension/-medication, % 56.6 74.7 <0.001
Systolic BP, mmHg 153 ± 23 157 ± 23 0.036
Diastolic BP, mmHg 85 ± 12 88 ± 12 0.005
Alcohol users, % 35.9 43.5 0.070
Area of residence, Turku, % 51.8 48.8 0.489
LVH, % 12.3 16.5 0.160
PNMMVD*, % 52.7 70.0 <0.001
Diabetes treatment    0.823
diet only, % 13.5 14.7  
oral drugs, % 74.2 71.8  
insulin therapy, % 12.3 13.5  
Death rates/1000-patient-years    
Total mortality 52.9 64.7 0.039
CVD mortality 33.7 43.5 0.070
CHD mortality 24.7 30.3 0.326
Stroke mortality 5.7 9.1 0.153
  1. Data are expressed as the mean ± SD, unless otherwise indicated.
  2. *Prevalent non-major macrovascular disease (ischaemic ECG changes and typical symptoms of angina pectoris, or claudication), Metabolic equivalent task.