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Table 2 Comparison of CV risk factors in 1998 and 2007

From: Validation of the pooled cohort risk score in an Asian population – a retrospective cohort study

Clinical characteristics 1998 2007
Age, year (mean) 57.5 ± 8.8 67.5 ± 8.8
Sex, female (n, %) 615 (66.7) 615 (66.7)
Ethnicity (n, %)   
- Malay 210 (22.7) 210 (22.7)
- Chinese 425 (46.1) 425 (46.1)
- Indian 275 (29.8) 275 (29.8)
- Others 12 (1.4) 12 (1.4)
Diabetes mellitus (n, %) 424 (47.0) 528 (57.3)
- HbA1c, % (mean) 7.7 ± 1.8 7.5 ± 1.6
- DM controlled with HbA1c ≤6.5% (n, %) 110 (11.9) 163 (17.7)
Systolic BP, mmHg (mean) 140.9 ± 18.6 135.1 ± 16.6
- Use of anti-hypertensive agents (n, %) 552 (59.9) 760 (82.4)
- BP controlled SBP ≤140 mmHg (n, %) 568 (61.6) 681 (73.9)
- RAS blocker use (n, %) 66 (7.2) 371 (40.2)
Total cholesterol, mg/dl (mean) 234.8 ± 42.3 190.9 ± 37.2
HDL cholesterol, mg/dl (mean) 47.6 ± 14.2 49.6 ± 12.5
LDL cholesterol, mg/dl (mean) 143.1 ± 40.7 115.5 ± 31.6
Statin use in 1998 (n, %) 90 (9.7) 587 (63.7)
Smoker (n, %) 56 (6.1) 56 (6.1)
  1. Mean ± Standard deviation.
  2. CV cardiovascular, DM diabetes mellitus, BP blood pressure, SBP systolic blood pressure, RAS renin-angiotensin system, HDL high density cholesterol, LDL low density cholesterol.