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Table 3 Zone of origin and its association with post migration CHD $ risk (n = 364)

From: Assessment of vitamin D and its association with cardiovascular disease risk factors in an adult migrant population: an audit of patient records at a Community Health Centre in Kensington, Melbourne, Australia

Reference group Migrants (n = 231, 63.5%)
Those who born in Australia (n = 133, 36.5%) Zone 1 (n = 119) Zone 2 + 3 (n = 112)
n (%) (Latitude N230to S300) (Latitude > N230and > S300)
n (%) APR@(95% C.I.) n (%) APR (95% C.I.)
Hypertension * (>140/ 90 mmHg) 22(16.5) 16 (13.4) 0.86 (0.44-1.66) 26 (23.2) 1.50 (0.89-2.52)
Current smoking ** 66(49.6) 15(12.6) 0.25 (0.14-0.44)*** 29(25.9) 0.59 (0.41-0.87)
Diabetes ** 22 (16.5) 23 (19.3) 1.36 (0.79-2.37) 24 (21.4) 0.98 (0.56-1.73)
Cholesterol ** (mmol/L)      
% High cholesterol level (>5.5) 51 (38.3) 44 (37.0) 0.91 (0.66-1.26) 37 (33.0) 0.81 (0.56-1.17)
% of HDL (<1.0- men, <1.3-women) 62 (46.6) 58 (48.7) 1.22 (0.94-1.59) 47 (42.0) 1.09 (0.83-1.43)
Cholesterol/HDL ratio >4.5 34(25.6) 43(36.1) 1.64 (1.12-2.40) 32 (28.6) 1.43 (0.95-2.14)
Coronary heart disease ** 8(6.0) 2 (1.7) 0.57 (0.12-2.65) 10 (8.9) 1.20 (0.43-3.24)
FRS # >15% 74 (55.6) 29 (24.4) 0.44 (0.31-0.62) 59 (52.7) 0.95 (0.75-1.19)
  1. $CHD – Coronary heart disease.
  2. @ APR – Adjusted Prevalence Ratio.
  3. *Adjusted for Age, Gender, Smoking, Diabetes, Cholesterol/HDL ratio, Vitamin D (serum 25(OH) D).
  4. **Adjusted for Age and Gender.
  5. ***Bold numbers – Statistically significant at 0.05 level.
  6. #Framingham Risk Score - Adjusted for Vitamin D (serum 25 (OH) D) only as this is a composite index of Age, Gender, Smoking, Diabetes, Cholesterol/HDL ratio, Hypertension. The cut off level was arbitrarily set at 15 (mean – 16.3 and median – 12.7).
  7. Pre-migration zone 3 (n = 12) was amalgamated to zone 2 due to its small numbers.