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Table 2 Incidence and adjusted hazard ratios for cardiovascular events according to psychosocial factors

From: Impact of psychosocial factors on cardiovascular morbimortality: a prospective cohort study

  Educational level* Social support in the household Diagnosis of depression
  High education Low education Live with other Live alone No Yes
  (N = 1646) (N = 5617) (N = 6535) (N = 728) (N = 5954) (N = 1309)
Person-year of follow-up 7069,0 24280,89 28287,36 3062,56 25751,12 5598,79
Composite primary cardiovascular event       
  Number of events 56 224 257 23 248 32
  Crude Rate/1000 person-year (95% CI) 7.9 (5.8–10.0) 9.2 (8.0–10.4) 9.1 (8.0–10.2) 7.5 (4.4–10.6) 9.6 (8.4–10.8) 5.7 (3.7–7.7)
  Adjusted Hazard Ratio (95% CI)†‡ 1.00 (ref) 1.16 (0.85–1.57) 1.00 (ref) 0.85 (0.54–1.32) 1.00 (ref) 0.76 (0.52–1.11)
  p-value   0.351   0.458   0.155
Myocardial Infarction       
  Number of events 24 79 95 8 90 13
  Crude Rate/1000 person-year (95% CI) 3.4 (2.0–4.8) 3.3 (2.5–4.0) 3.4 (2.7–4.0) 2.6 (0.8–4.4) 3.5 (2.8–4.2) 2.3 (1.1–3.6)
  Adjusted Hazard Ratio (95% CI)†‡ 1.00 (ref) 1.10 (0.69–1.78) 1.00 (ref) 1.01 (0.48–2.12) 1.00 (ref) 0.89 (0.49–1.62)
  p-value   0.686   0.980   0.699
Stroke       
  Number of events 17 119 127 9 121 15
  Crude Rate/1000 person-year (95% CI) 2.4 (1.3–3.5) 4.9 (4.0–5.8) 4.5 (3.7–5.3) 2.9 (1.0–4.9) 4.7 (3.9–5.5) 2.7 (1.3–4.0)
  Adjusted Hazard Ratio (95% CI)†‡ 1.00 (ref) 1.83 (1.09–3.09) 1.00 (ref) 0.56 (0.28–1.12) 1.00 (ref) 0.66 (0.38–1.15)
  p-value   0.023   0.102   0.145
Cardiovascular Death       
  Number of events 25 58 73 10 73 10
  Crude Rate/1000 person-year (95% CI) 3.5 (2.2–4.9) 2.4 (1.8–3.0) 2.6 (2.0–3.2) 3.3 (1.2–5.3) 2.8 (2.2–3.5) 1.8 (0.7–2.9)
  Adjusted Hazard Ratio (95% CI)†‡ 1.00 (ref) 0.63 (0.38–1.03) 1.00 (ref) 1.21 (0.60–2.46) 1.00 (ref) 0.93 (0.47–1.84)
  p-value   0.064   0.598   0.832
  1. *High education means university studies or secondary school; Low education: up to primary studies.
  2. Multivariable models were adjusted by: age, gender, smoking, alcohol consumption, body-mass index, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia and family history of premature coronary heart disease, and type Mediterranean diet intervention.
  3. Test of proportional-hazard assumption (p-value based on the scaled Schoenfeld residuals): Composite primary cardiovascular event model (specific p-value for Educational level: 0.529, Social support: 0.765 and Depression: 0.877); Myocardial infarction model (0.611, 0.717 and 0.914); Stroke model (p-values = 0.204, 0.598 and 0.411); Cardiovascular death model (p-values = 0.810, 0.831 and 0.129).