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Table 1 Baseline characteristics

From: Differential association between metabolic syndrome and coronary artery disease evaluated with cardiac computed tomography according to the presence of diabetes in a symptomatic Korean population

Characteristics No diabetes P Type 2 diabetes P
  Total No MetS MetS   Total No MetS MetS  
  (n = 2,308) (n = 1,515) (n = 793)   (n = 561) (n = 176) (n = 385)  
Subjects         
Age (years) 57 ± 9 57 ± 9 57 ± 9 0.526 60 ± 9* 61 ± 9 60 ± 8 0.219
Men, n (%) 1,155 (50) 749 (49) 406 (51) 0.430 313 (56) 105 (60) 208 (54) 0.234
Body mass index (kg/m2) 24.4 ± 2.8 23.6 ± 2.6 25.9 ± 2.5 <0.001 25.0 ± 3.0* 23.1 ± 2.3 25.9 ± 3.0 <0.001
Current smoking, n (%) 277 (12) 176 (12) 101 (13) 0.500 76 (14) 23 (14) 53 (14) 0.876
SBP (mmHg) 126 ± 15 124 ± 14 130 ± 15 <0.001 128 ± 15 123 ± 13 130 ± 16 <0.001
DBP (mmHg) 79 ± 10 78 ± 9 81 ± 10 <0.001 78 ± 10 76 ± 9 79 ± 10 <0.001
Antihypertensive treatment, n (%) 1,098 (49) 628 (43) 470 (61) <0.001 298 (54) 61 (36) 237 (63) <0.001
Total cholesterol (mg/dL) 188 ± 35 187 ± 34 190 ± 37 0.047 181 ± 37* 176 ± 36 183 ± 38 0.045
Triglyceride (mg/dL) 140 ± 91 115 ± 61 190 ± 114 <0.001 160 ± 102* 105 ± 50 185 ± 109 <0.001
HDL cholesterol (mg/dL) 51 ± 12 54 ± 12 45 ± 10 <0.001 48 ± 11* 54 ± 11 46 ± 10 <0.001
LDL cholesterol (mg/dL) 120 ± 33 120 ± 32 120 ± 34 0.850 114 ± 38* 115 ± 42 114 ± 36 0.670
Creatinine (mg/dL) 0.90 ± 0.16 0.90 ± 0.16 0.91 ± 0.16 0.182 0.91 ± 0.16 0.91 ± 0.17 0.90 ± 0.16 0.779
GFR (mL/min/1.73 m2) 82 ± 13 82 ± 13 82 ± 13 0.235 83 ± 14 83 ± 14 82 ± 14 0.513
FBS (mg/dL) 95 ± 10 93 ± 9 100 ± 11 <0.001 135 ± 43* 133 ± 42 135 ± 44 0.584
Duration of diabetes (years) - - - - 11 ± 7 12 ± 7 10 ± 7 0.094
Anti-diabetic treatment, n (%) - - - - 433 (77) 133 (76) 300 (78) 0.588
Coronary atherosclerosis parameters, n (%)         
Any plaque 981 (43) 597 (26) 384 (48) <0.001 359 (64)* 104 (59) 255 (66) 0.108
CMP 797 (35) 480 (32) 317 (40) <0.001 311 (55)* 96 (55) 215 (56) 0.784
NCP 184 (8) 117 (8) 67 (8) 0.571 48 (9) 8 (5) 40 (10) 0.022
Obstructive plaque 292 (13) 171 (11) 121 (15) 0.007 145 (26)* 44 (25) 101 (26) 0.835
Obstructive CMP 244 (11) 140 (9) 104 (13) 0.005 122 (22)* 39 (22) 83 (22) 0.912
Obstructive NCP 48 (2) 31 (2) 17 (2) 0.876 23 (4) 5 (3) 18 (5) 0.366
CACS ≥ 100 264 (12) 155 (10) 109 (14) 0.013 129 (23)* 41 (23) 88 (23) 0.946
  1. Data are expressed as n (%) or mean ± SD. CACS, coronary artery calcium score; CAD, coronary artery disease; CMP, calcified or mixed plaque; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; FBS, fasting blood sugar; GFR, glomerular filtration rate; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; MetS, metabolic syndrome; NCP, non-calcified plaque; SBP, systolic blood pressure. *P <0.001 vs. no diabetes. P <0.05 vs. no diabetes.