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Table 1 Clinical characteristics of the study population

From: Clinical significance of subclinical carotid atherosclerosis and its relationship with echocardiographic parameters in non-diabetic chronic kidney disease patients

Clinical characteristics Total (n = 182) Carotid atherosclerosis
+ (n = 99, 54.4%) - (n = 83, 45.6%) p
Age (years) 67.8 ± 14.7 74.5 ± 9.8 59.9 ± 15.6 <0.001
Male, n (%) 96 (52.7) 54 (54.5) 42 (50.6) 0.351
Smoker, n (%) 70 (38.4) 41 (41.4) 29 (34.9) 0.756
Body mass index (kg/m2) 24.1 ± 3.4 23.6 ± 3.1 24.7 ± 3.8 0.065
Hypertension, n (%) 129 (70.8) 81 (81.8) 48 (57.8) 0.001
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 134.3 ± 21.0 136.0 ± 23.4 131.5 ± 17.4 0.093
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 75.5 ± 12.0 73.7 ± 12.6 77.6 ± 10.8 0.026
Pulse pressure (mmHg) 58.8 ± 17.1 62.9 ± 18.9 53.9 ± 13.1 <0.001
Baseline laboratory findings     
 Hemoglobin (g/dL) 11.3 ± 2.1 11.5 ± 2.0 11.3 ± 2.2 0.553
 Albumin (g/dL) 3.9 ± 0.6 3.8 ± 0.6 4.0 ± 0.6 0.144
 Blood urea nitrogen (mg/dL)* 28.7 (10.8-118.3) 30.9 (10.8-118.3) 27.1 (12.2-99.0) 0.065
 Creatinine (mg/dL) 2.6 ± 2.5 2.7 ± 2.0 2.4 ± 1.7 0.229
 eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2) 28.1 ± 16.1 23.6 ± 15.5 30.1 ± 18.5 0.185
 Calcium (Ca) 8.8 ± 0.7 8.8 ± 0.6 8.6 ± 0.8 0.128
 Phosphorus (P) 3.7 ± 1.2 4.0 ± 1.4 3.5 ± 0.9 0.030
 Ca * P product 34.6 ± 9.4 35.4 ± 18.3 34.2 ± 10.8 0.292
 Total cholesterol (mg/dL) 163.1 ± 44.8 169.8 ± 41.3 157.6 ± 47.1 0.092
 HDL-cholesterol (mg/dL) 47.0 ± 15.2 47.9 ± 16.5 45.9 ± 12.9 0.456
 LDL-cholesterol (mg/dL) 99.8 ± 35.2 108.9 ± 35.8 93.2 ± 33.3 0.011
 Triglyceride (mg/dL) 112.9 ± 51.7 128.2 ± 51.3 101.6 ± 49.4 0.003
 Urine PCR† -1.17 ± 1.42 -1.34 ± 1.27 -0.98 ± 1.57 0.103
 hs-CRP (mg/L) † -0.20 ± 1.12 -0.01 ± 1.19 -0.43 ± 0.98 <0.001
Statin use, n (%) 105 (57.6) 61 (61.6) 44 (53.0) 0.041
cIMT (mm) 0.87 ± 0.18 0.95 ± 0.18 0.75 ± 0.09 <0.001
Plaque, n (%) 90 (49.5) 90 (90.9) - -
  1. Abbreviations: HDL, High-density lipoprotein; LDL, Low-density lipoprotein; urine PCR, Urine protein-to-creatinine ratio. *, median with ranges. †, log-transformed.