Skip to main content

Table 3 Associations [95% confidence intervals] between SES (education and wealth) and objectively measured hypertension, LDL-cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol

From: Explaining significant differences in subjective and objective measures of cardiovascular health: evidence for the socioeconomic gradient in a population-based study

  Education Wealth
No/primary Secondary Tertiary/higher 1st tertile 2nd tertile 3rd tertile
Panel 1: Objectively Measured Hypertensiona     
 1) Not hypertensive 1 [Ref] 0.7 [−3.0 to 4.5] 5.5 [1.4 to 9.7]** 1 [Ref] 2.7 [−0.9 to 6.4] 4.7 [0.7 to 8.8]*
 Hypertensive, divided in 3 sub-groups:      
 2) Optimally treated 1 [Ref] −1.9 [−5.0 to 1.2] −2.3 [−5.8 to 1.1] 1 [Ref] 1.4 [−1.8 to 4.5] −1.6 [−5.2 to 2.0]
 3) Sub-optimally treated 1 [Ref] −0.6 [−3.7 to 2.4] −1.1 [−4.6 to 2.5] 1 [Ref] 1.5 [−1.6 to 4.7] 1.1 [−2.6 to 4.8]
 4) Untreated 1 [Ref] 1.8 [−1.6 to 5.3] −2.2 [−6.1 to 1.8] 1 [Ref] −5.6 [−9.3 to −1.9]** −4.3 [−8.3 to −0.3]*
Panel 2: Objectively Measured Cholesterolb     
 LDL-C     
 Adjusted for age, sex 1 [Ref] −0.02 [−0.09-0.05] 0.04 [−0.04-0.12] 1 [Ref] 0.01 [−0.07-0.10] 0.02 [−0.06-0.10]
 Adjusted for age, sex & covariates 1 [Ref] −0.03[−0.10-0.05] 0.00[−0.08-0.09] 1 [Ref] 0.02 [−0.07-0.10] 0.00 [−0.09-0.09]
 HDL-C       
 Adjusted for age, sex 1 [Ref] 0.05 [0.02-0.08]** 0.11 [0.07-0.15]** 1 [Ref] 0.02 [−0.01-0.06] 0.09 [0.06-0.12]**
 Adjusted for age, sex & covariates 1 [Ref] 0.02 [−0.01-0.05] 0.05 [0.01-0.09]** 1 [Ref] 0.00 [−0.03-0.03] 0.03 [0.00-0.07]
  1. Abbreviation: Ref, reference category.
  2. a1): SBP < 140 mm Hg and DBP < 90 mm Hg and not on antihypertensive medication (36%); 2): SBP < 140 mm Hg and DBP < 90 mm Hg and on antihypertensive medication (25.5%); 3): SBP ≥ 140 mm Hg and/or DBP ≥ 90 mm Hg and on antihypertensive medication (19.1%); 4): SBP ≥ 140 mm Hg and/or DBP ≥ 90 mm Hg and not on antihypertensive medication (19.3%). Multinomial logistic regression was performed, adjusting for age, sex, and covariates. Association is average marginal effect.
  3. bLinear regression was performed. Association is coefficient.
  4. *Indicates statistical significance at the 5% level.
  5. **Indicates statistical significance at the 1% level.