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Table 2 Associations [95% confidence intervals] between SES (education and wealth) and self-reported and objectively measured hypertension and hypercholesterolemia

From: Explaining significant differences in subjective and objective measures of cardiovascular health: evidence for the socioeconomic gradient in a population-based study

  Education Wealth
No/primary Secondary Tertiary/higher 1st tertile 2nd tertile 3rd tertile
Panel 1: Hypertension
 Self-reporteda
 Adjusted for age, sex 1 [Ref] 0.83 [0.70–0.99]* 0.79 [0.65–0.95]* 1 [Ref] 1.04 [0.86–1.25] 0.84 [0.70–1.00]*
 Adjusted for age, sex & covariates 1 [Ref] 0.94 [0.77–1.14] 0.92 [0.74–1.15] 1 [Ref] 1.17 [0.95–1.45] 0.99 [0.79–1.25]
 Objectively measureda
 Adjusted for age, sex 1 [Ref] 0.83 [0.69–1.00]* 0.60 [0.50–0.73]** 1 [Ref] 0.78 [0.65–0.93]** 0.65 [0.55–0.77]**
 Adjusted for age, sex & covariates 1 [Ref] 0.96 [0.79–1.18] 0.74 [0.60–0.92]** 1 [Ref] 0.86 [0.71–1.05] 0.77 [0.62–0.95]*
Panel 2: Hypercholesterolemia
 Self-reporteda
 Adjusted for age, sex 1 [Ref] 0.99 [0.84–1.17] 1.18 [0.99–1.41] 1 [Ref] 0.98 [0.82–1.17] 1.25 [1.06–1.48]**
 Adjusted for age, sex & covariates 1 [Ref] 0.98 [0.81–1.18] 1.13 [0.92–1.38] 1 [Ref] 0.96 [0.79–1.17] 1.28 [1.03–1.58]*
Objectively measureda
 Adjusted for age, sex 1 [Ref] 0.97[0.81–1.16] 1.19 [0.98–1.45] 1 [Ref] 1.10 [0.92–1.32] 1.10 [0.92–1.31]
 Adjusted for age, sex & covariates 1 [Ref] 0.96 [0.80–1.16] 1.13 [0.90–1.42] 1 [Ref] 1.10 [0.91–1.34] 1.05 [0.85–1.30]
  1. Abbreviation: Ref Reference category.
  2. aBinary logistic regression was performed. Association is odds ratio. The full list of covariates is presented in Table 1.
  3. *Indicates statistical significance at the 5% level.
  4. **Indicates statistical significance at the 1% level.