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Table 1 Baseline characteristics by educational attainment and wealth tertile

From: Explaining significant differences in subjective and objective measures of cardiovascular health: evidence for the socioeconomic gradient in a population-based study

  Education Wealth Total
No/primary Secondary Tertiary/ higher 1st tertile 2nd tertile 3rd tertile
Unweighted sample size 1,089 1,741 1,349 940 1,172 1,325 4,179
Outcome variables  
Self-reported CVDs:
 Hypertension 44.8 32.8 30.8 38.4 38.2 31.5 37.0
 High cholesterol 41.5 39.8 43.7 38.7 39.7 45.5 41.1
Objectively measured CVDs:
 Hypertensiona 74.3 59.9 52.4 69.2 63.3 57.7 64.0
 Hypercholesterolemiab 71.9 71.2 74.6 70.9 71.9 72.4 72.1
 LDL-cholesterol, mean 2.8 2.9 3.0 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.9
 HDL-cholesterol, mean 1.5 1.5 1.6 1.5 1.5 1.6 1.5
Covariates
Male 48.8 47.9 52.6 46.8 48.3 54.4 49.1
Age, mean 68.4 60.9 60.4 64.9 62.9 61.6 63.7
Married/cohabiting 60.3 74.9 74.9 52.6 70.6 83.2 69.4
Place of residence:
 Dublin 25.1 23.7 36.2 21.5 20.4 40.0 26.5
 Another town/city 25.4 28.1 25.0 30.5 28.2 19.0 26.5
 Rural area 49.5 48.2 38.9 48.1 51.4 41.0 46.9
Grew up in poor family 36.0 19.2 13.9 32.4 24.9 18.1 24.6
Smoking:
 Current smoker 19.5 17.0 11.3 27.4 14.9 11.0 16.9
 Past smoker 40.9 36.9 40.1 36.9 42.4 37.2 39.1
 Never smoked 39.5 46.1 48.6 35.7 42.7 51.8 44.0
Drinking:c
 Alcoholic drinks per week, mean 4.6 6.2 6.8 5.9 5.1 6.9 5.8
 CAGE score ≤1 76.7 78.0 77.1 74.7 78.0 78.8 77.4
 CAGE score ≥2 8.9 12.7 15.0 11.9 11.0 13.4 11.7
Kilocalories burnt per week, mean 3596.9 4183.5 4284.5 3339.8 3778.6 4594.4 3979.1
Waist circumference, mean 97.8 95.3 94.5 97.0 96.6 95.0 96.1
Self-reported diabetes 9.5 6.3 5.2 8.5 7.0 6.2 7.3
Self-reported other CVDs, mean 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2
Visits to physician/H last year, mean 7.2 5.3 4.7 7.3 6.2 4.6 5.9
Health insurance coverage:
 Private 33.8 63.9 81.8 26.9 52.6 84.3 55.8
 Full public 72.5 39.2 22.3 71.2 50.9 22.6 48.7
 Partial public 1.9 2.0 1.3 2.7 2.6 0.6 1.8
Tested for cholesterol 90.5 88.1 90.1 86.2 89.7 91.0 89.3
  1. Values are expressed as percentages unless otherwise indicated. Sample weights are applied. Baseline characteristics for ‘Education’ and ‘Total’ are reported for N = 4,179. Baseline characteristics for ‘Wealth’ are reported for N = 3,437.
  2. Abbreviations: CVD Cardiovascular disorder, LDL Low-density lipoprotein, HDL High-density lipoprotein, H Hospital.
  3. aDefined as: systolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mm Hg and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90 mm Hg and/or on antihypertensive medication (ATC codes: C02 (A-D,K,L,N), C03, C04, C07-C09).
  4. bDefined as: total cholesterol ≥5.2 mmol/L and/or on cholesterol lowering medication (ATC code: C10A (A-D, X) and C10B).
  5. cQuestions on alcohol intake and the CAGE questionnaire were asked in the self-completion questionnaire. Hence, information on alcohol intake and CAGE score is missing for respondents who underwent the health or home assessment but did not return the self-completion questionnaire.