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Table 1 Results of systematic review of hypertension awareness, treatment, control, and any associated factors from 44 studies in Africa, 1993-2013

From: Hypertension awareness, treatment and control in Africa: a systematic review

Country Location Age range Sample size Prevalence (%)   Factors associated with treatment, awareness and control
    Males Female Total   Aware (% of hypertensive) Treated (% of aware) Control (% treated)  
Comoros           
Solet JL , 2008 [14] Islands 30–69    1268 44.0 33.0   27.0 Elderly more aware than the young
Eritrea           
Mufunda, 2006 [15] Rural and Urban 15–64 1160 1182 2342 15.6 20.0    
Ethiopia           
Muluneh AT, 2012 [16] Rural and urban 15–64 2084 2385 4469 9.3    27.0  
Awoke A , 2012 [17] Urban >35    679 28.3 63.0   42.2 Obesity and low physical activity associated with poor control
Tesfaye F, 2009 [18] Urban 25–64 1398 1875 3713 31.5 35.2 11 28.0  
Kenya           
van de Vijver SJ, 2013 [19] Urban slums >18 2794 2396 5190 12.3 19.5 47 21.0  
Jenson A, 2011 [20] Coastal area   162 307 469 43.1 46.5 31.2 7.3 Women more aware OR 4.58 (1.81–11.64); better treated OR 4.02(1.89–8.54) and controlled OR 8.1(1.81–11.64) Older >60 more aware OR6.01(1.11–32.48), better treated OR3.22(1.00–10.32) and controlled 3.22(1.04–9.99)
Hendriks EM, 2011 [21] Rural >18 847 1264 2111 21.4 17.0 9 8.0  
Mozambique           
Damasceno et al., 2009 [22] Rural and urban 25–64 1281 1800 3081 33.1 14.8 48.1 39.9 Women more aware (p < 0.007), better treated (P < 0.021) and better controlled (p < 0.001)
Seychelles           
Bovet et al., 2004 [23] Nationalwide survey   1255 568 1823 39.2 65.0 62 24.1 Women more aware, treated and controlled
Tanzania           
Dewhurst et al., 2012 [25] Elderly >70 972 1251 2223 70.0 37.7 6.1 0.9 Men better treated, women more controlled
Hendriks EM, 2011 [21] Urban >18 423 623 1046 23.7 18.0 9 5.0  
Bovet P.,2002 [24]    9254 3659 5645 29.1 31.0 11 6.5 Women, better educated well controlled
Edwards R et al., 2000 [26] Rural and urban >15 402 526 928 30.0 20.0 10 <1.0 No difference in rural and urban
Uganda           
Musinguzi, 2013 [27] Rural >15 4563 2940 1623 27.2 28.2 51.6 9.4 Women more aware, controlled
Angola           
Pires JE, 2013[28] Mainly urban 18-64 853 611 1,464 23.0 21.6 13.9 33.0 Awareness, higher in women (p < 0.001); older subjects (p < 0.0001); non-smokers (p < 0.009). Lower in heavy alcohol drinkers (p < 0.007)
Cameroon           
Kamadjeu RM et al., 2006 [29] Nationwide survey >15 4007 6004 10,011 24.1 23.0 40.0   Older age, longer duration of HTN predicted awareness and treatment
Dzudie A et al., 2012 [30] Nationwide screen >15 2120 1117 1,003 47.5 37.1 59.9 24.6  
DRC. (Kinshasa)           
Katchunga PB, 2011 [31] Rural and urban >20    699 40.2 42.5 30.5 13.6  
Gabon           
Ngoungou EB, 2012 [32]   >40 313 423 736 51.9 9.9 19.4 5.8  
Zimbambwe           
Matenga, 1996 [33]   > 34    749 33.3 26.1 22.4 47.8  
Algeria           
Temmar M, 2007 [34] Urban > rural 40–99 637 711 1348 44.0   30.0 25.0 Women controlled better than men (p < 0.001)
Nejjari C et al., 2013 [35] Multinational >18 27296 17339 10292 45.4 7.0 91.2 37.5 Control better in urban areas (p < 0.00001), younger (p < 0.01), female(p < 0.01); university level (p < 0.00001); non-smokers (p < 0.0001); those with normal BMI (p < 0.00001); normal cholesterol level (p < 0.01)
Egypt           
Ibrahim MM, 1995 [36] Nationwide survey 25–95 2928 3804 6733 36.3 37.5 23.9 8.0 Better awareness, treatment and control in urban vs. rural. Better awareness and treatment in those with severe HTN. Better awareness and control in women and elderly
Tunisia           
Romdhane BH, 2012 [37] Nationwide survey 35–70    8007 30.6 38.8 84.4 24.1 Awareness better in older age group, females, lower education, urban subjects
Hammami, 2011 [38] Urban elderly >65 202 396 598 52.0 81.0 78.0 30.7 Awareness better in elderly population, those with free medications & the insured
Romdhane BH, 2005 [38]   40–60    1837 44.0 41.0 74.0 18.0  
South Africa           
Maepe LM, 2012 [50] Gold miners 18–69 3867 430 4297 39.5   42.0 31.0  
Malhotra R, 2008 [51]    107 530 637 40.0 49.2    Younger age associated with better awareness; 35–54 yrs [OR 0.33 (0.19–0.57)] and 55 yrs [OR 0.27 (0.14–0.54)] c.f age 18–34
Steyn K, 2008 [52] Nationwide   5738 8064 13801 21.0 M-41 F-67 M-39 f-58 M-26 F 38 Better control predicted by SES: richest vs poorest OR 2.33(1.17–4.62) ; Race asian vs black OR 1.76(1.03–3.02); Age: oldest age group vs youngest OR 26.23 (4.92–141); Insurance: non-insured vs insured OR 0.59 (0.38–0.91)
Namibia           
Hendriks EM, 2011 [21] Urban >18 771 962 1733 38.0 38.0 17 12  
Benin           
Houinato DS, 2012 [40]    3461 3392 6853 27.9 22.5 4.8 1.9  
Ghana           
Agyemang, 2006 [41] Rural urban >16 787 644 1431 29.4 34.0 28 6.2 Awareness better in older age (≥50-yr olds cf 16-34-yr olds [OR = 6.14, (2.98–12.64). Treatment better in older age ≥50-year-olds OR: 6.25 ( 2.87–13.62); overweight OR 1.85(1.02, 3.34); traders OR 2.51(1.03–7.40]) Control better in traders OR 2.51 (1.03–7.40) but poor in old age: ≥50-year-olds OR 0.11( 0.01–0.60)
Addo, 2006 [42] Rural >18 107 255 362 22.4 33.2 16.7   
Amoah, 2003 [63] Urban >25 1893 2840 4733 28.3 34.0 18 4.0  
Nigeria           
Ulasi II, 2011 [44] Market community   379 352 731 54.2 49.8    
Oladapo OO, 2010 [45]    873 1127 2000 39.2 14.2 18.6   Transport, lack of drugs at health units, competing priorities
Hendriks EM, 2011 [21] Rural, multinational >18 1247 1431 2678 19.3 8.0 5.0 3.0  
Omuemu, 2007 [46] Rural     590 20.2 18.5 77.3 29.2 Women more aware, educated, elderly
Ekwunife, 2010 [47]   >18 364 392 756 21.1 30.0 21.0 9.0 Men more aware, women more controlled
Senegal           
Macia E, 2012 [48] Urban >50 263 237 500 64.5 49.5 70.6 17.4 Better awareness for women OR 2.4(1.41–4.07); elderly > 70 yrs OR 2.15(1.11–4.17) but worse for the educated > 8 years OR 2.15 (1.01–4.6 ); those who had not visited HCW within the year OR 0.37 ( 0.23–0.6) Better treatment and control for those who had visited HCW within the last year (P < 0.001)
Togo           
Yayehd K, 2011 [49]    2002 1095 905 36.7 42.4    
  1. HTN hypertension, HCW Health care workers, SES socioeconomic status, BMI body mass Index, OR (95% CI)- Odds ratio followed by 95% CI.
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