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Table 1 Clinical characteristics, blood pressure, serum and lipoprotein lipids and vascular variables at baseline and after the six-month intervention in the control and plant stanol ester groups

From: The effects of plant stanol ester consumption on arterial stiffness and endothelial function in adults: a randomised controlled clinical trial

  Control group (n=46)* Staest group (n=46)* p
  Baseline Intervention Baseline Intervention  
n (M/F) 46(14/32)   46(21/25)   0.197
Age (y) 50.6 ± 1.4   50.9 ± 1.4   0.676
Weight (kg) 72.4 ± 2.0 73.3 ± 2.0 76.6 ± 2.2 77.4 ± 2.2 0.670
BMI (kg/m2) 25.0 ± 0.5 25.3 ± 0.5 25.4 ± 0.6 25.6 ± 0.5 0.507
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 120 ± 2 118 ± 2 125 ± 2§ 119 ± 2 0.245
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 75 ± 1 74 ± 1 76 ± 1 74 ± 1 0.291
Plasma glucose (mmol/l) 4.87 ± 0.08 4.90 ± 0.08 4.97 ± 0.08 4.98 ± 0.08 0.804
hsCRP (mg/l) 1.08 ± 0.14 1.33 ± 0.24 1.01 ± 0.12 1.00 ± 0.11 0.770
Serum cholesterol (mmol/l) 5.57 ± 0.14 5.73 ± 0.15 ll 5.48 ± 0.12 5.28 ± 0.11§, ll <0.001
LDL cholesterol (mmol/l) 3.54 ± 0.14 3.6 ± 0.15 3.52 ± 0.12 3.23 ± 0.12§, ll <0.001
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l) 1.79 ± 0.07 1.88 ± 0.07 1.76 ± 0.07 1.85 ± 0.08 0.986
non-HDL cholesterol 3.77 ± 0.15 3.85 ± 0.15 3.73 ± 0.13 3.43 ± 0.13§, ll <0.001
Serum triglycerides (mmol) 0.96 ± 0.07 1.05 ± 0.07 0.89 ± 0.06 0.98 ± 0.07 0.905
CAVI cardio-ankle vascular index111 8.66 ± 0.16 8.73 ± 0.15 8.66 ± 0.15 8.69 ± 0.15 0.737
men (n=14/20) 8.35 ± 0.31 8.57 ± 0.29 8.55 ± 0.23 8.46 ± 0.24  
women (n=31/23) 8.81 ± 0.19 8.81 ± 0.18 8.75 ± 0.21 8.89 ± 0.18  
Reactive hyperemia index 2.2 ± 0.1 2.3 ± 0.1 2.3 ± 0.1 2.4 ± 0.1 0.610
Augmentation index, % 8.2 ± 2.5 11.5 ± 2.711 8.5 ± 3.1 7.6 ± 2.5 0.046
  1. Values shown are means±SEM. Staest, plant stanol ester; BMI=body mass index; hsCRP=high sensitive C-reactive protein.
  2. *n=45/43 (control/staest group) for cardio-ankle vascular index and n=44/42 for reactive hyperemia and n=42/38 for augmentation index.
  3. Group by time interaction analyzed by repeated measures of variance analysis (general linear model),
  4. except gender (Fisher exact test).
  5. p<0.05, change over time.
  6. §p<0.05 from controls.
  7. l lp<0.05 from baseline.
  8. 111group by sex by time interaction p=0.024 for CAVI. In control men: baseline vs intervention p=0.061.