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Table 3 Distribution of normal blood pressure pre-hypertension and hypertension by age, education, marital status, diet, physical activity, smoking, use of alcohol, BMI and place of residence

From: Pre-hypertension in Uganda: a cross-sectional study

Variable Total Normol BP Pre-hypertension Hypertension (Chi-square)
  (N = 4142) % (CI) (N = 1720) % (CI) (N = 1460) % (CI) (N = 962) % (CI) P-value
Was 40 years and above
  36.6 (35.1-38.1) 23.5 (21.5-25.5) 33.5 (31.1-35.9) 64.7*(61.7-66.7) (413.7) < 0.001
Reported frequent physical activity
  83.7 (82.6-84.8) 85.3 (83.6-87.0) 85.4 (83.6-87.2) 78.0 (75.4-80.6) (9.2) < 0.001
Reported frequent consumption of vegetables
  45.8 (44.3-47.3) 47.5 (45.1-49.9) 45.7 (43.1-48.3) 43 0 (40.0-46.1) (4.7) 0.030
Reported frequent consumption of fruits
  40.9 (39.4-42.4) 42.6 (40.3-44.9) 41.9 (39.4-44.3) 36.2 (33.2-39.3) (9.2) 0.002
Currently consumes Alcohol
  25.8 (23.4-28.1) 21.7 (19.0-24.4) 27.1 (24.2-29.8) 31.2 (27.2-35.2) (30.8) < 0.001
Currently smokes
  6.4 (5.4-7.5) 5.8 (4.6-6.9) 6.2 (4.6-7.9) 8.0 (6.2-9.8) (4.7) 0.030
Was married or co-habiting
  62.1(60.6-63.6) 66.5 (64.3-68.7) 59.9 (57.4-62.4) 57.6 (54.5-60.7) (23.7) < 0.001
Had at least secondary level of education
  42.7 (41.2-44.2) 45.3 (43.0-47.7) 44.9 (42.4-47.5) 34.5 (31.5-37.5) (24.5) < 0.001
Body Mass Index is 25 Kg/M2 or more
  20.2 (19.0-21.4) 15.5 (13.8-17.2) 19.7 (17.7-21.7) 29.3 (26.4-32.2) (68.9) <0.001
Sex is male
  35.7 (34.2-37.2) 27.6 (25.5-29.7) 44.2 (41.6-46.8) 37.1 (34.1-40.2) (40.3) < 0.001
Resided in an urban area
  33.1 (31.7-34.5) 31.0 (28.8-33.2) 33.5 (31.1-35.9) 36.0 (33.0-39.0) (6.9) 0.008
  1. P-value refers to test of chi-square for linear trend among those with normal blood pressure, pre-hypertension or hypertension.
  2. *Numbers shown in columns are percent of people with normal BP, pre-hypertension or hypertension that have a particular variable. E.g. 64.7% of people with hypertension are 40 years and above.