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Table 2 Characteristics of study participants by their overall cardiovascular risk

From: Identification of effective screening strategies for cardiovascular disease prevention in a developing country: using cardiovascular risk-estimation and risk-reduction tools for policy recommendations

  Overall Low risk Intermediate risk High risk p value
Variables      
Age 49.4 (0.01) 48.4 (0.03) 49.7 (0.03) 52.9 (0.13)  
Male sex 49.6 40 55 64.3 <0.001
Race      0.008
Malay 48.4 47.2 48.3 50.9  
Chinese 29.6 28.3 30.3 31.5  
Asian Indian 7.8 7.9 8.2 7.4  
Others 14.2 16.6 13.2 10.1  
Residence      0.007
Urban 60.8 64.3 58 55.8  
Rural 39.2 35.7 42 44.2  
Education (Years of schooling)      <0.001
Tertiary (≥ 13 years) 7.8 11.1 5.8 2.8  
Secondary (7–12 years) 41.7 54.3 33.7 22.9  
Primary (≤6 years) 35.4 26.4 40.9 49  
Household income      <0.001
<RM2000 62.4 57.1 64.4 71.4  
RM2000-3999 23.9 26.3 23.1 19.8  
≥RM4000 13.7 16.6 12.5 8.8  
Prevalences of CV risk factors      
Smoking 22.2 (20.3, 24.3) 16.6 (14.8, 18.5) 25.9 (23.8, 28.0) 30.7 (27.7, 33.8) <0.001
Central obesity 44.6 (42.6, 46.5) 38.4 (36.7, 40.2) 48.5 (45, 51.9) 53.8 (51, 56.5) <0.001
Hypertension 50.1 (48.1, 52.2) 26.1 (24.4, 28.1) 64.3 (62.2, 66.5) 87 (85.9, 88) <0.001
Hypercholesterolemia 30.3 (27.7, 33) 23.2 (21.0, 25.5) 35.9 (32.6, 39.3) 40.1 (36.8, 43.6) <0.001
Diabetes 15.2 (13.8, 16.7) 4 (3.4, 4.6) 15.4 (13.7, 17.3) 37.3 (33.7, 41) <0.001
  1. Data are % for categorical variables, mean (se) for continuous variables & prevalence (95%CI) for risk factors.
  2. CV cardiovascular.
  3. Smoking; current smokers who smoked ≥100 cigarettes in their lifetime, and smoked daily or for some days in.
  4. The previous month.
  5. Central obesity; men, 90 cm and women, 80 cm [25].
  6. Hypertension; SBP ≥ 140 mmHg and/or DBP ≥ 90 mmHg [26], or use of anti-hypertensive medication.
  7. Hypercholesterolemia; total cholesterol level ≥ 5.2 mmol/l [27] or use of lipid lowering drugs.
  8. Diabetes; fasting glucose ≥ 6.1 mmol/l [28] or self reported to be diabetic.