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Table 2 Bivariate comparison of demographics, presentation characteristics, medical history and perception of health and access to health care between early and late presenters*

From: Factors associated with presenting >12 hours after symptom onset of acute myocardial infarction among Veteran men

  Early n = 106 Late n = 229 P
  %(n) %(n)  
Demographics
  Age 63.1 ±10.5 (106) 65 ±10.4 (229) 0.12
  White 91.4 (96) 85.9 (183) 0.59
  Married 47.2 (50) 49.3 (107) 0.89
  Lives alone 25.5 (27) 31.4 (72) 0.27
  Attended some college/vocational 66 (70) 52.8 (121) 0.02
  Miles from home zip to VHA facility 55.5 ±177 (69) 44.6 ±82.7 (130) 0.55
  Distance traveled from home residence    0.35
    <50 miles 49.1 (52) 42.8 (98)  
    ≥50 miles 16 (17) 14 (32)  
    Missing 34.9 (37) 43.2 (99)  
  Employed 30.2 (32) 33.8 (78) 0.52
  Family history of CAD 49.1 (52) 43.7 (94) 0.64
Presentation characteristics
  STEMI 27.4 (29) 14 (32) 0.00
  Angina episodes in previous 24 h    <0.01
   0-1 68.9 (73) 24.5 (56)  
   ≥2 16 (17) 36.7 (84)  
   Missing 15.1 (16) 38.9 (89)  
  Tertiary facility 92.5 (98) 89.1 (204) 0.34
Medical history
  ≥1 angina episode per day over prior 4 weeks 17.9 (19) 27.1 (62) 0.07
  Cardiac procedure (PCI or CABG) 41.5 (44) 38.4 (88) 0.59
  Prior myocardial infarction 42.5 (45) 36.2 (83) 0.28
  Prior congestive heart failure 12.3 (13) 17.9 (41) 0.19
  Prior stroke 9.4 (10) 14.4 (33) 0.21
  Diabetes 40.6 (43) 41.9 (96) 0.82
  PTSD 10.4 (11) 13.1 (30) 0.48
  Alcohol or substance abuse 21.7 (23) 19.2 (44) 0.60
Perception of health and health care
 How often do you worry about having a heart attack?    0.83
   Never 28.8 (30) 29.8 (64)  
   Rarely 26 (27) 29.3 (63)  
   Occasionally 28.8 (30) 23.7 (51)  
   Often 12.5 (13) 14.4 (31)  
   Can't stop 3.8 (4) 2.8 (6)  
 How difficult is it for you to get medical care when needed?    0.67
   Not a problem 53.8 (57) 48.1 (104)  
   Not very difficult 18.9 (20) 25.9 (56)  
   Somewhat difficult 11.3 (12) 13.9 (30)  
   Moderately difficult 10.4 (11) 5.6 (12)  
   Extremely difficult 2.8 (3) 5.1 (11)  
  1. * Late presentation is hospital admission >12 hours after symptom onset of acute myocardial infarction.
  2. CAD coronary artery disease; STEMI ST elevation myocardial infarction; PCI percutaneous coronary intervention; CABG cardiac artery bypass graft; PTSD post traumatic stress disorder.