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Table 2 Univariate analysis of risk factors for AKI

From: Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin (NGAL) predicts renal injury in acute decompensated cardiac failure: a prospective observational study

FACTOR AKI No AKI Odds ratio
(95%CI)
P value
NGAL > 89 ng/ml 15/22 (68%) 20/68 (29%) 5.1 (1.8-14.5) 0.003*
NGAL > 149 ng/ml 10/22 (45%) 8/68 (12%) 6.1 (2.0-18.8) 0.002*
Age ≥ 80 years 10/22 (45%) 33/68 (49%) 1.3 (0.4-3.3) 0.81
eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 19/22 (86%) 35/68 (51%) 6.0 (1.6-22.0) 0.005*
Diabetes 10/22 (45%) 32/68 (47%) 0.9 (0.4-2.5) 0.90
Hypertension 16/22 (72%) 45/68 (66%) 1.4 (0.5-3.9) 0.57
Loop diuretic ↑1 15/22 (68%) 43/68 (63%) 1.2 (0.4-3.5) 0.64
Nephrotoxic drug2 7/22 (32%) 25/68 (37%) 0.8 (0.3-2.2) 0.64
IV Contrast 6/22 (27%) 15/68 (22%) 1.3 (0.4-4.0) 0.64
Sepsis 1/22 (4%) 1/68 (1.5%) 3.2 (0.2-54.0) 0.43
Shock 2/22 (9%) 4/68 (6%) 1.6 (0.3-9.4) 0.63
Myocardial Infarction 6/22 (27%) 9/68 (13%) 2.5 (0.8-8.0) 0.19
Urinary Infection 3/22 (14%) 5/68 (7%) 2.0 (0.4-9.1) 0.40
  1. *p < 0.05
  2. 1 Introduction of loop diuretic or increase in usual dose of ≥ 50% over baseline for at least 24 hours (including bolus doses)
  3. 2 At least one dose of agent with potential renal toxicity including ACE inhibitor, angiotensin receptor blocker, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, spironolactone, aminoglycoside antibiotic etc.