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Table 1 Clinical characteristics of patients with combined chronic heart failure and chronic kidney disease that underwent MR study

From: Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis is prevalent in cardiorenal patients but not associated with left ventricular function and myocardial fibrosis as assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging

Variable All patients (n = 37) Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis p-value
Present (n = 21) Absent (n = 16)
Age, years 74 [68–80] 74 [70–79] 74 [60–82] 0.83
Male sex, no. (%) 23 (62.2) 13 (61.9) 10 (62.5) 0.97
Body mass index (kg/m2) 26.5 ± 4.2 26.3 ± 3.5 26.8 ± 5.1 0.84
Creatinine, umol/L 190 ± 81 204 ± 83 172 ± 77 0.19
Cockcroft Gault (ml/min) 37.4 ± 15.6 33.1 ± 12.3 42.9 ± 18.1 0.07
Haemoglobin (g/dL) 11.7 ± 0.82 11.7 ± 0.81 11.7 ± 0.86 0.58
CRP (mg/L) 5 [1.0-10.5] 5 [1.5-9.5] 4.5 [1.0-11.3] 0.95
hsCRP (mg/L) 4.0 [1.3-9.9] 3.8 [1.3-8.3] 5.8 [0.7-10.4] 0.89
NTproBNP (pg/mL) 1400 [621–2499] 1680 [653–2229] 1360 [503–2853] 0.71
Micro albuminuria (mg/24 h) 21.0 [10.3-218.0] 41.5 [14.5-230.0] 12.5 [8.5-93.8] 0.25
SBP, mmHg 145 ± 21.8 150 ± 21.6 138 ± 20.9 0.12
DBP, mmHg 75 ± 11.5 76 ± 13.2 72 ± 8.6 0.23
24-h SBP, mmHg 127 ± 15.3 126 ± 13.1 128 ± 18.3 0.73
24-h DBP, mmHg 66 ± 8.2 66 ± 8.3 66 ± 8.3 1.00
No. of antihypertensive drugs 3.5 [3.0-4.0] 3.3 [3.0-4.0] 3.8 [2.3-5.0] 0.37
RAS inhibitor     
 n (%) 36 (97.3) 21 (100.0) 15 (93.8) 0.25
 % of recommended dose/day 50 [38–100] 50 [50–100] 75 [25–138] 0.80
β-blocker use, no. (%) 30 (81.1) 16 (76.2) 14 (87.5) 0.38
Diuretic use, no. (%) 29 (78.4) 16 (76.2) 13 (81.3) 0.71
 Loop diuretic, no. (%) 24 (64.9) 12 (57.0) 12 (75.0) 0.26
 Loop diuretic, dose/day* 40 [0–80] 40 [0–40] 40 [20–110] 0.17
Aldosterone antagonist, no. (%) 5 (13.5) 3 (23.8) 2 (12.5) 0.42
Statin use, no. (%) 28 (75.7) 15 (71.4) 13 (81.3) 0.49
Diabetes, no. (%) 14 (37.8) 5 (23.8) 9 (56.3) 0.04
Hypertension, no. (%) 29 (78.4) 18 (85.7) 11 (68.8) 0.21
Smoking history, no. (%) 24 (64.9) 15 (71.4) 9 (56.3) 0.38
Pack years 16.4 [0–31] 16.4 [0–33] 11.5 [0–30] 0.34
Cerebrovascular disease, no. (%) 7 (18.9) 6 (28.6) 1 (6.3) 0.11
Peripheral arterial disease, no. (%) 14 (37.8) 11 (52.4) 3 (18.8) 0.05
Kidney length (cm) (n = 34) 10.9 ± 4.7 10.3 ± 2.2 11.5 ± 6.5 0.85
Aetiology of heart failure:     0.58
 Ischemic, no. (%) 22 (59.5) 13 (61.9) 9 (56.3)  
 Hypertensive, no. (%) 5 (13.5) 3 (14.3) 2 (12.5)  
 Valvular, no. (%) 4 (10.8) 3 (14.3) 1 (6.3)  
 Other, no. (%) 6 (16.2) 2 (9.5) 4 (25.0)  
NYHA class     0.21
II, no. (%) 27 (73.0) 17 (80.9) 10 (62.5)  
III/IV, no. (%) 10 (27.0) 4 (19.0) 6 (37.5)  
  1. Mean ± standard deviation or median [interquartile range] is shown.
  2. Abbreviations; CRP, C-reactive protein; hsCRP, high sensitive CRP; NTproBNP, N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide; SBP, systolic blood pressure; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; RAS inhibitor, renin-angiotensin-system inhibitor; NYHA, New York Heart Association class for heart failure.
  3. · Loop diuretic dose/day of furosemide, bumetanide was converted to 1 mg bumetanide = 40 mg furosemide.