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Table 2 Multivariable logistic regression for factors associated with the utilization of disease-modifying treatments in the entire study population of 28, 922 patients with chronic heart failure

From: Utilization of evidence-based treatment in elderly patients with chronic heart failure: using Korean Health Insurance claims database

Predictors of utilization Disease-modifying treatment group ACEI or ARB and Beta-blockers ACEI or ARB Beta-blockers Aldosterone antagonist
  (71.4% total) (21.7% total) (33.0% total) (9.8% total) (6.9% total)
  aPR (95% CI) aPR (95% CI) aPR (95% CI) aPR (95% CI) aPR (95% CI)
Older Age group   0.92 (0.89-0.97) 1.09 (1.05-1.14) 0.86 (0.81-0.91) 1.08 (1.01-1.16)
Women     1.13 (1.03-.1.25)  
Specialty of healthcare providers being internal medicine 1.26 (1.12--1.54) 1.20 (1.13-1.39) 1.28 (1.08-1.42)   0.82 (0.68-0.98)
Tertiary hospital 2.07 (1.85-2.31) 1.95 (1.81-2.11) 1.15 (1.09-1.22) 0.86 (0.79-0.93) 0.56 (0.52-0.62)
Urban residence 1.37 (1.23-1.52) 1.08 (1.00-1.15) 1.19 (1.12-1.26)   0.67 (0.61-0.75)
Outpatient prescription 4.02 (3.31-4.72) 2.76 (2.56-2.97) 5.02 (4.64-5.47) 3.08 (2.65-3.56) 3.39 (2.83-4.03)
Cardiovascular disease
Angina 1.40 (1.38-1.47) 1.12 (1.02-1.20) 0.90 (0.83-0.97) 1.21 (1.08-1.35) 0.78 (0.67-0.92)
Myocardial infarction 1.37 (1.28-1.45) 1.11 (1.04-1.23)    0.81 (0.67-0.97)
Transient ischemic stroke 0.82 (0.71-0.94)   0.85 (0.78-0.91)   1.24 (1.09-1.41)
Peripheral artery disease    0.86 (0.75-0.98)   
Arterial fibrillation or flutter 1.36 (1.20-1.56) 1.26 (1.17-1.36) 0.87 (0.81-0.98) 1.17 (1.05-1.31)  
Valvular heart disease 1.28 (1.10-1.53) 1.26 (1.14-1.39)   0.76 (0.65-0.89) 0.78 (0.65-0.95)
Medical history
Hypertension    1.09 (1.03-1.15) 1.20 (1.11-1.31) 0.63 (0.57-0.70)
Diabetes mellitus 1.26 (1.14-1.40) 1.08 (1.02-1.16) 1.10 (1.04-1.16) 0.80 (0.74-0.88)  
Hyperlipidemia or dyslipidemia     0.85 (0.77-0.94)  
End-stage renal disease   1.30 (1.16-1.45) 0.78 (0.70-0.88)   
Chronic lung disease 0.67 (0.54-0.87) 0.83 (0.77-0.89) 1.13 (1.07-1.19)   1.31 (1.19-1.45)
Dementia    0.83 (0.75-0.92) 0.81 (0.74-0.88)  
Concomitant medication
Diuretics 3.41 (3.21-3.65) 1.87 (1.71-2.05) 1.29 (1.13-1.31) 0.82 (0.77 -0.92) 2.24 (1.94-2.58)
CCB   1.18 (1.11-1.26) 0.87 (0.82-0.93)   0.70 (0.63-0.78)
Nitrates 1.79 (1.61-2.01) 1.51 (1.41-1.62) 0.85 (0.79-0.91) 1.30 (1.19-1.42) 0.75 (0.66-0.86)
Digoxin 1.32 (1.24-1.53)   1.23 (1.17-1.30)   1.28 (1.19-1.37)
Hydralazine 1.60 (1.09-2.38) 1.61 (1.28-2.02) 0.73 (0.58-0.92) 1.12 (1.02-1.28)  
Inotropics 1.59 (1.41-1.79) 1.43 (1.33-1.54) 0.92 (0.86-0.98)   
Lipid-lowering agents 1.80 (1.57-2.07) 1.64 (1.52-1.77) 0.84 (0.78-0.90) 0.84 (0.78-0.92) 0.65 (0.55-0.77)
Anti-diabetic medication 1.92 (1.80-2.05) 1.12 (1.04-1.20)    0.65 (0.58-0.72)
Anti-thrombotics 1.88 (1.69-2.09) 1.78 (1.65-1.92)   0.70(0.62-0.79)  
  1. Adjusted for demographic factors (age, gender, residence area, utilization of hospital type, specialty of health care providers and type of prescription resources), previous cardiovascular diseases (angina, myocardial infarction, valvular heart disease, atrial fibrillation or flutter, transient ischemic attack), systemic medical diseases (, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, chronic lung disease, end stage renal disease) and concomitant medications (heart failure medication, antidiabetic drugs).
  2. aPR; adjusted Prevalent Ratio, CI: Confidence Interval, CCB: Calcium channel blockers.