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Table 1 Clinical characteristics related to the utilization of disease-modifying treatments in the study population

From: Utilization of evidence-based treatment in elderly patients with chronic heart failure: using Korean Health Insurance claims database

  Total study population ACEI or ARB and Beta-blockers ACEI or ARB Beta-blockers Aldosterone antagonist None
  (N = 28922) (N = 6261) (N = 9540) (N = 2837) (N = 2007) (N = 8277)
  N (%) 21.7% total 33.0% total 9.8% total 6.9% total 28.6% total
Mean age (SD) 77.5 (7.0) 76.7 (6.8)* 77.7 (7.0) 76.8 (6.7)* 78.4 (6.9) 77.9 (7.2)
Age group, y
 65-74 10296 (35.6) 2477 (39.6)* 3299 (34.6) 1117 (39.4)** 604 (30.1)* 2799 (33.8)
 75-84 13776 (47.6) 2929 (46.8) 4563 (47.8) 1341 (47.3) 1024 (51.0) 3919 (47.4)
 85- 4850 (16.8) 855 (13.7) 1678 (17.6) 379 (13.4) 379 (18.9) 1559 (18.8)
Sex
 Women 20927 (72.4) 4420 (70.6)* 6885 (72.2) 2123 (74.8)* 1489 (74.2) 6010 (72.6)
Healthcare provider specialty
 Internal medicine 27035 (93.5) 6028 (96.3)** 9108 (95.5)** 2651 (93.4)** 1853 (92.3)** 7395 (89.3)
 Others 1887 (6.5) 233 (3.7) 432 (4.5) 186 (6.6) 154 (7.7) 882 (10.7)
Type of hospital
 Primary hospital 372 (3.0) 55 (0.9)** 188 (2.0)** 102 (3.6)** 86 (4.3)** 441 (5.3)
 Secondary hospital 9801 (33.9) 1035 (16.5) 2800 (29.6) 1035 (36.5) 1018 (50.7) 3913 (47.3)
 Tertiary hospital 18249 (63.1) 5171 (82.6) 6552 (68.7) 1700 (59.9) 903 (45.0) 3923 (47.4)
Residence area
 Urban 15441 (53.4) 3994 (63.8)** 5384 (56.4)** 1435 (50.6)* 778 (38.8)** 3850 (46.5)
 Rural 13481 (46.6) 2267 (36.2) 4156 (43.6) 1402 (49.4) 1229 (61.2) 4427 (53.5)
Source of prescription
 Outpatient 22046 (76.2) 5165 (82.5) 8295 (86.9) 2385 (84.1) 1731 (86.2) 4470 (54 )
Cardiovascular disease
 Angina 4413 (15.3) 1378 (22.0)** 1485 (15.6)** 509 (17.9)** 193 (17.9) 848 (10.3)
 Myocardial infarction 3078 (10.6) 981 (15.7)** 1049 (11.0)** 289 (10.2)** 141 (7.0) 618 (7.5)
 Transient ischemic stroke 4609 (15.9) 1027 (16.4) 1364 (14.3)** 515 (18.2) 325 (16.2) 1378 (16.7)
 Peripheral artery disease 1255 (4.3) 329 (5.3)* 379 (4.0) 141 (5.0)* 70 (3.5) 336 (4.1)
 Arterial fibrillation or flutter 5720 (19.8) 1780 (28.4)** 2089 (21.9)** 567 (20.0)** 362 (18.0)** 922 (11.1)
 Valvular heart disease 2548 (8.8) 846 (13.5)** 981 (10.3)** 197 (6.9)** 137 (6.8)** 387 (4.7)
Medical history
 Hypertension 11394 (39.4) 2149 (34.3)** 3756 (39.4)* 1364 (48.1)** 670 (33.4)** 3455 (41.7)
 Diabetes mellitus 9882 (34.2) 2607 (41.6)** 3454 (36.2)** 892 (31.4)* 591 (29.5) 2338 (28.3)
 Hyperlipidemia or dyslipidemia 6624 (22.9) 2041 (32.6)** 2279 (23.9)** 637 (22.5)** 349 (17.4) 1318 (15.9)
 End-stage renal disease 1884 (6.5) 622 (9.9)** 574 (6.0)* 183 (6.5)* 97 (4.8) 408 (4.9)
 Chronic lung disease 9829 (34.0) 2041 (32.6) 3516 (36.9)** 850 (30.0) 832 (41.5)** 2610 (31.5)
 Chronic liver disease 4474 (15.5) 983 (15.7) 1521 (15.9) 423 (14.9) 325 (16.2) 1222 (14.8)
 Systemic cancer 1389 (4.8) 329 (5.3)* 493 (5.2) 120 (4.2) 84 (4.2) 363 (4.4)
 Dementia 2000 (6.9) 320 (5.1)** 548 (5.7)** 210 (7.4)* 161 (8.0) 761 (9.2)
 Depression 1517 (5.3) 334 (5.3) 477 (5.0) 153 (5.4) 108 (5.4) 445 (5.4)
Concomitant medication
 Diuretics 20810 (76.7) 5484 (88.2)** 7886 (84.1)** 1958 (71.0)** 1702 (86.8)** 3780 (55.6)
 Calciumchannel blockers 9944 (36.7) 2408 (38.7) 3139 (33.5)* 1224 (44.4)** 542 (27.7)** 2631 (38.7)
 Nitrates 7282 (26.9) 2546 (41.0)** 2514 (26.8)** 795 (28.8)** 352 (18.0)* 1075 (15.8)
 Digoxin 11913 (43.9) 2918 (46.9)** 4569 (48.7)** 1072 (38.9)** 1036 (52.9)** 2318 (34.1)
 Inotropics 5286 (19.5) 1660 (26.7)** 1813 (19.3)* 358 (13.0)** 282 (14.4)* 1173 (17.2)
 Amiodarone 986 (3.6) 359 (5.8)** 353 (3.8)** 94 (3.4)* 37 (1.9) 143 (2.1)
 Hydralazine 427 (1.6) 141 (2.3)** 116 (1.2) 55 (2.0)* 22 (1.1) 93 (1.4)
 Lipid lowering agents 4465 (16.5) 1667 (26.8)** 1509 (16.1)** 459 (16.6)** 175 (8.9) 655 (9.6)
 Anti-diabetic medication 6453 (23.8) 1851 (29.8)** 2302 (24.5)** 600 (21.8)* 374 (19.1) 1326 (19.5)
 Anti-thrombotics 17473 (64.4) 5024 (80.8)** 6299 (67.2)** 1860 (67.4)** 1050 (53.6)** 3240 (47.6)
  1. Data for categorical variables are expressed as n (%) and quantitative variables as means (standard deviation). SD: standard deviation.
  2. Variables in each group of evidence based treatments were compared with non user group as control group using chi-square methods or Student’s t test methods.
  3. *p < 0.05, statistically differences, **p < 0.01, statistically differences.