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Table 2 Association between ACE I/D polymorphisms and ACS risk factors

From: Angiotensin converting enzyme DD genotype is associated with acute coronary syndrome severity and sudden cardiac death in Taiwan: a case-control emergency room study

ACE genotypes II (n = 37)   ID (n = 51)    DD (n = 23)   
ACS risk factors     Univariate    Univariate  
  n   n OR (95%CI) p * n OR (95%CI) p *
ACS spectrum         
UAP (n = 57) 22 1 (ref.) 28    7   
AMI (n = 54) 15   23 1.205 (0.511-2.839) 0.670 16 3.352 (1.111-10.115) 0.032
Demographic factors         
Age (mean) 67.7 ± 11.1 1 (ref.) 64.2 ± 13.5 0.981 (0.949-1.013) 0.232 62.4 ± 18.1 0.972 (0.935-1.010) 0.149
Sex -female 10 1 (ref.) 8    7   
male 27   43 2.352 (0.733-7.543) 0.150 16 1.181 (0.375-3.719) 0.776
Complications         
Hypertension- No 10 1 (ref.) 20    11   
- Yes 27   31 0.574 (0.229-1.437) 0.236 12 0.404 (0.135-1.206) 0.104
Diabetes Mellitus-No 25 1 (ref.) 33    17   
- Yes 12   18 0.880 (0.359-2.157) 0.780 6 1.360 (0.427-4.328) 0.603
Hypercholesterolemia-No 31 1 (ref.) 39    19   
- Yes 6   12 0.629 (0.212-1.866) 0.403 4 0.919 (0.229-3.684) 0.905
Other clinical risk factors         
Systolic blood pressure 22 1 (ref.) 38    13   
< 140 mmHg         
≥ 140 mmHg 15   13 0.502 (0.202-1.246) 0.137 10 1.128 (0.393-3.236) 0.822
Diastolic blood pressure 27 1 (ref.) 45    16   
< 90 mmHg         
≥ 90 mmHg 10   6 0.360 (0.118-1.102) 0.074 7 1.181 (0.375-3.719) 0.776
Total cholesterol < 200 mg/dl 31 1 (ref.) 46    17   
≥ 200 mg/dl 6   5 0.562 (0.158-2.002) 0.374 6 1.824 (0.509-6.538) 0.356
Triglyceride < 150 mg/dl 34 1(ref.) 42    17   
≥ 150 mg/dl 3   9 1.768 (0.500-6.251) 0.377 6 2.912 (0.722-11.736) 0.133
BMI (kg/m2) < 27 35 1 (ref.) 43    21   
≥ 27 2   8 3.256 (0.649-16.328) 0.151 2 1.667 (0.218-12.732) 0.622
History         
Heart failure history-No 29 1 (ref.) 41    16   
-Yes 8   10 0.884 (0.311-2.512) 0.817 7 1.586 (0.485-5.181) 0.445
CAD history -No 22 1 (ref.) 32    17   
-Yes 15   19 0.871 (0.366-2.074) 0.755 6 0.518 (0.166-1.617) 0.257
MI history -No 34 1 (ref.) 46    21   
-Yes 3   5 1.232 (0.275-5.512) 0.785 2 1.079 (0.166-7.004) 0.936
Family history of ACS 35 1 (ref.) 50    22   
-Yes 2   1 0.350 (0.031-4.012) 0.399 1 0.795 (0.068-9.301) 0.855
Smoking 20 1 (ref.) 29    11   
-Yes 17   22 0.892 (0.381-2.091) 0.793 12 1.283 (0.452-3.641) 0.639
  1. On the basis of logistic regression, with statistical significance (p < 0.05) shown in bold. Multivariate analyses were not performed as only the DD genotype was significantly associated with AMI
  2. ACE, angiotensin converting enzyme, UAP: unstable angina pectoris; AMI: acute myocardial infarction, CAD: coronary artery disease; MI: myocardial infarction.