Skip to main content

Table 1 General characteristics of studied population (separated for women and men) at the reference and intervention communes in the baseline survey and after 3 years intervention, standardized by age

From: Effectiveness of community-based comprehensive healthy lifestyle promotion on cardiovascular disease risk factors in a rural Vietnamese population: a quasi-experimental study

Cardiovascular disease risk factors in women Baseline Survey (2006) After 3-year intervention (2009)
Reference Intervention p Reference Intervention p
Social risk factors
Age (years) 48.5 ± 14.1 47.5 ± 14.0 0.179 47.8 ± 14.7 48.6 ± 13.6 0.237
Education: secondary school or higher (%) 68.2% 78.3% <0.001 75.9%§ 82.1% 0.004
Occupation: manual labour (%) 17.8% 30.6% <0.001 25.5%§ 32.4% 0.003
Behavioural risk factors
Current daily smoking (%) 0.2% 0.7% 0.146 0.2% 0.1% 0.588
Heavy alcohol consumption (%) 0.2% 0.2% 0.958 0.0% 0.0% -
Physical inactivity (%) 8.8% 6.8% 0.150 8.4% 12.8%§ 0.006
Salty diet (%) 19.9% 25.5% 0.011 17.5% 18.1%§ 0.782
Biological risk factors
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 133.7 ± 21.5 132.1 ±21.3 0.154 125.1 ±20.7§ 121.8 ±17.5§ 0.001
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 77.6 ± 9.7 80.0 ±11.1 <0.001 76.6 ± 10.5 75.0 ± 9.5§ 0.002
Weight (kg) 46.3 ± 6.1 46.4 ±6.5 0.743 45.3 ± 6.5§ 47.0 ± 6.9 <0.001
Body Mass Index (kg/m2) 20.1 ± 2.2 20.2 ± 2.4 0.308 19.5 ± 2.4§ 20.2 ± 2.5 <0.001
Waist circumference (cm) 67.7 ± 6.4 67.8 ± 6.7 0.884 69.7 ± 6.8§ 71.9 ± 7.2§ <0.001
Hip circumference (cm) 84.3 ± 4.8 83.9 ± 4.8 0.108 84.1 ± 4.8 85.7 ± 5.2 § <0.001
Waist-Hip-Ratio 0.80 ± 0.05 0.81 ± 0.05 0.140 0.83 ± 0.06§ 0.84 ± 0.06§ 0.003
Prevalence of obesity 5.4% 6.8% 0.254 8.9%§ 14.6%§ 0.001
Prevalence of hypertension 29.1% 30.6% 0.547 20.9%§ 19.4%§ 0.477
Awareness among hypertensives 21.0% 35.1% 0.001 23.6% 64.6%§ <0.001
Being treated among hypertensives 6.9% 1.8% 0.004 10.2% 51.4%§ <0.001
Well controlled among hypertensives 0.6% 0.7% 0.967 0.0% 18.0%§ <0.001
Social risk factors
Age (years) 50.8 ± 12.3 51.4 ± 12.3 0.474 50.9 ± 12.1 52.5 ± 12.3 0.048
Education: secondary school or higher (%) 81.3% 89.2% 0.001 82.0% 89.8% 0.001
Occupation: manual labour (%) 25.7% 41.4% <0.001 30.9% 40.3% 0.004
Behavioural risk factors
Current daily smoking (%) 47.9% 47.8% 0.967 45.8% 45.5% 0.930
Heavy alcohol consumption (%) 34.4% 37.9% 0.289 23.8%§ 27.5%§ 0.201
Physical inactivity (%) 9.0% 10.1% 0.613 11.6% 17.5%§ 0.015
Salty diet (%) 32.1% 44.0% 0.001 30.9% 35.8%§ 0.122
Biological risk factors
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 136.5 ±20.4 139.4 ±20.3 0.037 132.5 ±19.0 § 133.7 ±18.6 § 0.355
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 80.9 ± 10.3 85.3 ± 11.0 <0.001 81.8 ± 10.6 82.2 ± 11.4 § 0.603
Weight (kg) 52.9 ± 7.3 52.8 ± 8.1 0.927 52.7 ± 7.9 53.3 ± 7.5 0.236
Body Mass Index (kg/m2) 20.3 ± 2.4 20.5 ± 2.7 0.412 19.9 ± 2.6 § 20.4 ± 2.4 0.006
Waist circumference (cm) 71.0 ± 7.5 71.5 ± 8.0 0.320 74.1 ± 8.0 § 74.5 ± 7.3 § 0.438
Hip circumference (cm) 85.5 ± 5.6 85.0 ± 5.3 0.192 86.3 ± 5.2 86.5 ± 5.5 § 0.500
Waist-Hip-Ratio 0.83 ± 0.06 0.84 ± 0.06 0.018 0.86 ± 0.06 § 0.86 ± 0.05 § 0.521
Prevalence of obesity 5.2% 7.6% 0.173 6.2% 5.0% 0.440
Prevalence of hypertension 34.0% 46.7% <0.001 31.0% 39.7%§ 0.008
Awareness among hypertensives 24.7% 31.3% 0.176 27.4% 45.0%§ <0.001
Being treated among hypertensives 4.7% 3.0% 0.418 15.6%§ 36.5%§ <0.001
Well controlled among hypertensives 0.0% 0.4% 0.444 1.6% 8.0%§ 0.009
  1. : in comparison between reference and intervention commune; §: significant in comparison before and after 3 year interventions.