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Table 1 Characteristics of cases and matched controls at index date

From: A net clinical benefit analysis of warfarin and aspirin on stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation: a nested case–control study

  Ischemic stroke Intracranial hemorrhage
Cases (n = 5519) Controls (n = 55,022) Cases (n = 689) Controls (n = 6858)
Age, years, mean (SD)* 79.5 (9.2) 79.5 (9.1) 78.2 (9.6) 78.2 (9.4)
Males, n (%)* 2503 (45.4) 24,979 (45.4) 366 (53.1) 3649 (53.2)
Excessive alcohol use, n (%) 76 (1.4) 643 (1.2) 14 (2.0) 106 (1.5)
Smoking status, n (%)     
Ever 2253 (40.8) 22,044 (40.1) 357 (51.8) 3240 (47.2)
Never 2709 (49.1) 28,181 (51.2) 291 (42.2) 3237 (47.2)
Unknown 557 (10.1) 4797 (8.7) 41 (6.0) 381 (5.6)
Obesity, n (%)     
BMI < 30 3407 (61.7) 34,630 (62.9) 445 (64.6) 4575 (66.7)
BMI ≥ 30 810 (14.7) 8716 (15.8) 116 (16.8) 1225 (17.9)
Unknown 1302 (23.6) 11,676 (21.2) 128 (18.6) 1058 (15.4)
Congestive heart failure, n (%) 1432 (25.9) 13,976 (25.4) 163 (23.7) 1625 (23.7)
Hypertension, n (%) 2992 (54.2) 28,238 (51.3) 414 (60.1) 3676 (53.6)
Diabetes, (%) 528 (9.6) 4458 (8.1) 77 (11.2) 640 (9.3)
Prior strokes, n (%) 894 (16.2) 3266 (5.9) 75 (10.9) 408 (5.9)
Peripheral artery disease, n (%) 297 (5.4) 2275 (4.1) 33 (4.8) 293 (4.3)
Myocardial infarction, n (%) 696 (12.6) 6554 (11.9) 83 (12.0) 845 (12.3)
Previous cancer, n (%) 1003 (18.2) 10,605 (19.3) 155 (22.5) 1351 (19.7)
Prior bleeds, n (%) 996 (18.0) 9766 (17.7) 164 (23.8) 1237 (18.0)
Venous thromboembolism, n (%) 421 (7.6) 4094 (7.4) 60 (8.7) 525 (7.7)
ACE inhibitors, n (%) 1738 (31.5) 18,237 (33.1) 259 (37.6) 2565 (37.4)
Angiotensin receptor blockers, n (%) 397 (7.2) 4572 (8.3) 63 (9.1) 756 (11.0)
Antidepressants, n (%) 706 (12.8) 5404 (9.8) 100 (14.5) 725 (10.6)
Antipsychotics, n (%) 555 (10.1) 3858 (7.0) 52 (7.5) 429 (6.3)
NSAIDs, n (%) 981 (17.8) 9102 (16.5) 88 (12.8) 1001 (14.6)
Statins, n (%) 1294 (23.4) 12,503 (22.7) 211 (30.6) 2032 (29.6)