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Table 9 Difference in left ventricular rotational parameters between participants with diastolic dysfunction as compared to healthy controls

From: Heart Disease and Left Ventricular Rotation – A Systematic Review and Quantitative Summary

Study Details Matched Controls Apical Rotation Basal Rotation Twist Torsion Twist Rate Time to Peak Twist Peak Untwist Rate Untwist Rate Time to Peak Untwist Additional Notes
Wang et al. 2008 Case–control Level 3 D&B = 23 2D-STE* No           Diastolic dysfunction group had normal ejection fraction but had diastolic heart failure.
Perry et al. 2008 Case–control Level 3 D&B = 20 2D-STE** No           Early diastolic apical untwist was reduced in abnormal relaxation vs. controls, was further reduced in pseudonormal relaxation and reduced additionally in restrictive filling.
Phan et al. 2009 Case–control Level 3 D&B = 20 2D-STE** Yes        Diastolic dysfunction group had normal ejection fraction but had diastolic heart failure.
Jang et al. 2009 Case–control Level 3 D&B = 20 2D-STE*** No          Participants with diastolic dysfunction were separated into those with intermediate (11.1) or elevated (18.2) E/E' ratio. Apical rotation was borderline increased in those with intermediate but not elevated E/E' (P = 0.07).
Park et al. 2008 Case–control Level 3 D&B = 19 2D-STE*** Yes   ↑/↓ Grade 1 diastolic dysfunction reported in table. Grade 2 group was not different from controls in any parameter. Grade 3 participants had reduced untwisting rate as compared to controls.
Mizuguchi et al. 2008 Case–control Level 3 D&B = 17 2D-STE** Yes           Diastolic dysfunction group had reduced E/A (< 1) ratio but preserved ejection fraction.
  1. D & B; Downs and Black score, MRI; magnetic resonance imaging, 2D-STE; two dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography, ***indicates that mitral leaflets and luminal obliteration were used for identifying the basal and apical images respectively, **indicates that mitral leaflets and location inferior to papillary muscle were used for identifying the basal and apical images respectively, * indicates that land marking for short axis images was not a widely accepted technique or poorly described, E/A ratio; ratio of peak velocity of early filling to peak velocity of late filling, E/E’ ratio; ratio of mitral peak velocity of early filling to early diastolic mitral annular velocity, ; significant increase in heart disease group as compared to healthy controls, significant decrease in heart disease group as compared to healthy controls, ; no significant difference between heart disease group as compared to healthy controls.