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Table 8 Difference in left ventricular rotational parameters between participants with heart failure as compared to healthy controls

From: Heart Disease and Left Ventricular Rotation – A Systematic Review and Quantitative Summary

Study Details Matched Controls Apical Rotation Basal Rotation Twist Additional Notes
Zhang et al. 2008 Case–control Level 3 D&B = 23 2D-STE* Yes  
Bertini et al. 2009 Case–control Level 3 D&B = 23 2D-STE** Yes  
Fuchs et al. 2004 Case–control Level 3 D&B = 23 MRI Tagging No   Diastolic basal rotation was similar between controls and those with heart failure. Diastolic apical rotation was reduced in those with heart failure.
Russel et al. 2009 Case–control Level 3 D&B = 18 MRI Tagging No    20/34 participants with heart failure had reversed rotation patterns whereas no healthy controls did.
Wang et al. 2008 Case–control Level 3 D&B = 17 2D-STE* No     
  1. D & B; Downs and Black score, MRI; magnetic resonance imaging, 2D-STE; two dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography, **indicates that mitral leaflets and location inferior to papillary muscle were used for identifying the basal and apical images respectively, * indicates that land marking for short axis images was not a widely accepted technique or poorly described, ; significant increase in heart disease group as compared to healthy controls, significant decrease in heart disease group as compared to healthy controls, ; no significant difference between heart disease group as compared to healthy controls.