Skip to main content

Table 7 Difference in left ventricular rotational parameters between participants with various cardiovascular risk factors, right ventricle apical pacing, non-compaction, transplants, coronary artery disease, restrictive cardiomyopathy and constrictive pericarditis as compared to healthy controls

From: Heart Disease and Left Ventricular Rotation – A Systematic Review and Quantitative Summary

Study Details Matched Controls Apical Rot Basal Rot Twist Twist Rate Time to Peak Twist Peak Untwist Rate Untwist Rate Additional Notes
Sengupta et al. 2008 Case–control Level 3 D&B = 20 2D-STE*** Yes      Restrictive cardiomyopathy did not have significantly different torsion compared to healthy controls.
Sengupta et al. 2008 Case–control Level 3 D&B = 20 2D-STE*** Yes      Apical rotation rate, twist and torsion was reduced in those with constrictive pericarditis.
Paetsch et al. 2005 Case–control Level 3 D&B = 19 MRI Tagging Yes        Measures were not taken at rest. Measures were collected during low or high doses of dobutamine. At both doses, those with coronary heart disease had reduced measures as compared to controls. Increased time to untwist was reported in clinical population.
Delgado et al. 2009. PCT Level 2 D&B = 18 2D-STE*** Yes      Right ventricle apical pacing compared to healthy controls.
Mizuguchi et al. 2008 Case–control Level 3 D&B = 17 2D-STE** Yes       Various cardiovascular risk factors compared to healthy controls.
van Dalen et al. 2008 Case–control Level 3 D&B = 17 2D-STE*** Yes ↔/↑    In all non-compaction participants, the base and apex rotated in the same direction. Those with clockwise rotation had opposite (reduced) apical rotation but normal basal rotation. Those with counter clockwise rotation had reduced apical rotation and opposite (increased) basal rotation.
Bellavia et al. 2010 Case–control Level 3 D&B = 19 2D-STE*** Yes ↔/↓     Non-compaction with normal EF (≥50%) was not different in basal rotation from healthy controls whereas those with low EF (<50%) had reduced basal rotation.
Esch et al. 2009 Case–control Level 3 D&B = 14 2D-STE** Yes         Heart transplants regress to recipient matched rotation characteristics (instead of maintaining donor age matched rotation). Compared to recipient matched controls, heart transplants had reduced untwisting response to exercise. Both recipient age matched controls and transplant recipients had reductions in twist with exercise whereas donor matched had increased twist with exercise.
  1. D & B; Downs and Black score, MRI; magnetic resonance imaging, 2D-STE; two dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography, EF; ejection fraction, ***indicates that mitral leaflets and luminal obliteration were used for identifying the basal and apical images respectively, **indicates that mitral leaflets and location inferior to papillary muscle were used for identifying the basal and apical images respectively ; significant increase in heart disease group as compared to healthy controls, significant decrease in heart disease group as compared to healthy controls, ; no significant difference between heart disease group as compared to healthy controls.