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Table 2 Summary of difference in left ventricular rotation between heart disease patients and healthy controls

From: Heart Disease and Left Ventricular Rotation – A Systematic Review and Quantitative Summary

Heart Disease D&B Quality Score Mean (SD) No. Articles Sample Size
Mean (SD)
Apical Rotation (°) Basal Rotation (°) Twist (°) Twist Rate (°/s) Torsion (°/length) Untwist Rate (°/s) Time to Peak Untwist Reverse Rotation
Aortic Stenosis STE = 17 (2) MRI = 16 (1) 4 2 N = 162 N = 25 ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↔/↑   ↔/↑ ↑  
Myocardial Infarction STE = 19 (3) MRI = 15 (1) 3 3 N = 129 N = 73 ↓ ↔/↓ ↓ ↔      
Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy STE = 18 (3) MRI = 12 (1) 7 2 N = 257 N = 15 ↔ ↔/↓ ↑ ↔ ↓/↔/↑    ↔/↑  
Dilated Cardiomyopathy STE = 19 (1) 6 N = 294   Yes
Non-compaction STE = 18 (1) 2 N = 30    Yes
Heart Failure STE = 21 (3.5) 3 N = 149      Yes
Diastolic Dysfunction STE = 20 (2) 6 N = 347 ↔/↑     
  1. N; total number of subjects in heart disease group from all publications in group, D & B; Downs and Black score, MRI; magnetic resonance imaging, 2D-STE; two dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography, ; significant increase in heart disease group as compared to healthy controls, significant decrease in heart disease group as compared to healthy controls, . Note that for HCM, we did not report the two articles which used VVI as we required two or more articles for any value reported in this table and the two articles using VVI reported the same results in both publications.