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Table 1 General demographic and clinics characteristics

From: Abdominal obesity vs general obesity for identifying arterial stiffness, subclinical atherosclerosis and wave reflection in healthy, diabetics and hypertensive

  Global n = 305 Healthy n = 92 (30.20) Diabetic n = 100 (32.80) Hypertensive n = 113 (37.00) p
Age 53.37 ± 12.04 48.56 ± 11.85 59.29 ± 10.56 52.05 ± 11.33 < 0.001
Male (n. %) 163 (53.40) 34 (37.00) 65 (65.00) 64 (56.60) < 0.001
Female (n.%) 142 (46.60) 58 (63.00) 35 (35.00) 49 (43.40) < 0.001
Dyslipidemia (n. %) 121 (39.70) 12 (13.00) 73 (73.00) 36 (31.90) < 0.001
Smoking (n. %) 71 (23.30) 24 (26.10) 20 (20.00) 27 (23.90) 0.597
BMI (Kg/m2) 27.92 ± 4.53 25.73 ± 3.49 29.90 ± 5.24 27.96 ± 3.75 < 0.001
Waist circumference (cm.) 95.80 ± 12.31 89.57 ± 9.53 102.32 ± 12.63 95.16 ± 11.25 < 0.001
Body fat percentage 34.06 ± 6.97 33.89 ± 7.04 34.67 ± 7.49 33.69 ± 6.47 0.589
Waist to height ratio 0.58 ± 0.08 0.54 ± 0.05 0.62 ± 0.09 0.57 ± 0.06 < 0.001
Total cholesterol (mg/dL) 205.36 ± 40.40 207.68 ± 38.70 189.81 ± 38.33 217.23 ± 39.41 < 0.001
HDL-cholesterol (mg/dL) 53.85 ± 13.70 58.10 ± 14.29 48.92 ± 11.13 54.82 ± 14.05 < 0.001
LDL-cholesterol (mg/dL) 126.28 ± 34.83 129.97 ± 34.31 111.19 ± 29.82 136.94 ± 35.01 < 0.001
Triglyceride (mg/dL) 104 (74-144.5) 80 (60.25-114.00) 118 (86.25-174.25) 109 (83.00-153.50) < 0.001
Serum glucose (mg/dL) 89 (80-107.5) 82 (77.00-88.00) 130 (106.00-149.75) 85 (78.50-93.00) < 0.001
hsCRP (mg/dL) 0.16 (0.09-0.33) 0.13 (0.06-0.23) 0.17 (0.09-0.47) 0.17 (0.09-0.29) 0.043
HOMA index 1.67 (0.98-3.02) 1.07 (0.70-1.75) 2.43 (1.49-4.24) 1.55 (1.06-2.75) < 0.001
Fibrinogen (mg/dL) 320.52 ± 62.51 319.88 ± 60.11 328.77 ± 67.29 313.73 ± 59.62 0.224
Office SBP (mmHg) 133.61 ± 19.50 115.23 ± 14.21 137.10 ± 18.68 145.48 ± 11.37 < 0.001
Office DBP (mmHg) 84.21 ± 12.27 74.40 ± 8.92 83.10 ± 11.33 93.18 ± 8.33 < 0.001
Peripheral pulse pressure (mmHg) 49.40 ± 12.77 40.83 ± 8.93 54.00 ± 13.39 52.31 ± 11.46 < 0.001
Central SBP (mmHg) 125.28 ± 19.57 107.52 ± 13.69 128.86 ± 17.82 137.86 ± 12.95 < 0.001
Central DBP (mmHg) 84.87 ± 12.86 74.71 ± 9.41 84.31 ± 11.67 94.36 ± 8.87 < 0.001
Central Pulse pressure (mmHg) 40.41 ± 12.12 32.82 ± 8.48 44.55 ± 12.17 43.50 ± 11.78 < 0.001
PWV (m/s) 8.59 ± 2.29 7.03 ± 1.42 9.84 ± 2.35 8.80 ± 2.08 < 0.001
C-IMT mean (mm.) 0.71 ± 0.11 0.64 ± 0.09 0.77 ± 0.12 0.70 ± 0.10 < 0.001
C-IMT maximum (mm.) 0.88 ± 0.14 0.80 ± 0.11 0.96 ± 0.14 0.87 ± 0.12 < 0.001
CAIx 30.33 ± 12.07 29.27 ± 13.28 30.77 ± 11.33 30.89 ± 11.61 0.592
PAIx 91.51 ± 20.67 88.27 ± 19.74 94.73 ± 22.96 91.63 ± 19.11 0.109
ABI 1.11 ± 0.13 1.15 ± 0.11 1.09 ± 0.15 1.11 ± 0.11 0.002
Antihypertensive drugs (n. %) 72 (23.6) 0(0.0) 70 (70.0) 2 (1.8) < 0.001
Antidiabetic drugs (n. %) 87 (28.5) 0(0.0) 87 (87.0) 0(0.0) < 0.001
Lipid lowering drugs (n. %) 69 (22.6) 0(0.0) 58 (58.0) 11 (9.7) < 0.001
Atherosclerotic plaques (n. %) 37 (12.1) 1 (1.1) 25 (25.0) 11 (9.7) < 0.001
  1. BMI: Body mass index. HDL: High-density lipoprotein. LDL: Low-density lipoprotein. hsCRP: High sensitivity c-reactive protein. SBP: Systolic blood pressure. DBP: Diastolic blood pressure. PWV: Pulse wave velocity. C-IMT:Intima-media thickness. CAIx: Central augmentation index. PAIx: Peripheral augmentation index. ABI: ankle-brachial index.
  2. Data for qualitative variables are expressed as n (%) and quantitative variables as mean ± standard deviation or mean (interquartile range)
  3. p: statistically significant differences (p < 0.05).