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Table 5 Studies reporting factors from other categories relating to uptake of cardiac rehabilitation

From: A systematic review of patient reported factors associated with uptake and completion of cardiovascular lifestyle behaviour change

Factors References of studies examining uptake
  Facilitates Deters No relation
Language barriers
Non-English speaking background / less likely to speak English   45** 52, 60, 76, 77
Physical wellbeing
(History of) CHD 51 38, 41, 75 33, 66, 67, 70, 77
History of neurological / cognitive impairment   45**  
ACS (compared to IHD) 61   
Angina pain / MI 65, 51   32
Previous cardiac event or cardiac procedurea† 34, 41, 54, 65, 67, 75 34, 38**, 40**, 45**, 76** 31, 32, 33, 52, 65, 67, 76
Presence of clinical cardiac risk factorsb‡ 32, 34, 65c, 75, 76, 77 34, 67, 75 19, 35, 38, 45, 50, 52, 60, 67, 77, 76
Co-morbid long-term conditionsd   31, 45**, 75, 67, 76e 35, 38, 42, 50, 52, 60, 65, 77
Family history of CHD 34, 76 75 52, 77
Increased weight & body mass index 60, 75   33, 50, 60, 67, 76, 77
Various indicators of cardiac conditionf 75 38, 40, 65**, 50
Less frequent diagnosis of angina   41  
Poorer physical functioning/physical QOL   35**, 61** 36, 50, 60
On medication for cardiac problems 38, 40, 65 67g 67h
Balancing and integrating health care needs with daily life
Family obligations   50  
Referrals
Not receiving an outpatient appointment   40  
Culture
Foreign citizen   65, 77  
Jewish (compared to Muslim) 61   
Social support
Practical support 64**   
Less social support   36 37, 56
Medium to large social network (versus small) 64   
Role of health care professional
Perceived strength of physician recommendation / involvement of a cardiologist 31, 42, 75   
Attitudes to rehabilitation
CR more suited to younger and more active individuals   48  
CR is necessary/ intention to attend, previously attended CR 33, 36, 48, 51   
Attitudes to exercise
Sedentary lifestyle / less regular exercise 52 38, 35, 67 32, 33, 76
Personal choices and cultural preferences
Current smoking 34, 38, 45, 75 50, 67 32, 33, 35, 52, 60, 67, 77
Demographics
Greater deprivation   36, 38, 40, 42 70
Female   34**, 35, 37, 38, 39**, 46, 57, 75, 77 31, 33, 36, 40, 42, 45, 49, 50, 52, 53, 56, 60, 65, 66, 67, 70
Older age 36, 77 31, 33**, 37, 38, 39**, 45**, 57, 75, 77 31, 33, 36, 40, 42, 49, 50, 52, 53, 56, 60, 65, 66, 67, 70
Age between 55–74 years (compared with younger and older groups) / being a pet owner 54   
  1. Regression analysis not reported [46, 4850, 57, 66, 67, 72, 73].
  2. ** Independently significant.
  3. Cardiac procedures: Reperfusion (not otherwise specified), percutaneous coronary intervention, coronary bypass surgery, electrical cardioversion.
  4. Clinical cardiac risk factors: hypertension and hyperlipidemia (includes stated high cholesterol).
  5. aEvenson and colleagues [34] had conflicting results for having had an event versus having had a procedure. Nielsen et al. [65], Worcester et al. [76] and Redfern et al. [67], had conflicting results for different cardiac procedures.
  6. b Evenson et al. [34] reported conflicting results for hypertension and hyperlipidemia with uptake correlated with (more likelihood of) hyperlipidemia) and non uptake correlated with (more likelihood of) hypertension.
  7. c Raised LDL cholesterol facilitating uptake in women only.
  8. d Includes diabetes, COPD, asthma, other undefined.
  9. e Men with diabetes (not observed in women).
  10. f Various indicators of cardiac condition included: ECG T-wave inversion (independently significant and tachycardia (not independently significant) [50]; NHAR classification (possible versus probable AMI) [40];Greater ejection fraction [50, 75]; More severe cardiac infarction [38, 46].
  11. g One (statin) of eight different medication types (e.g. anti-hypertensives) was negatively associated with attendance. All others were not associated with attendance.