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Table 1 Baseline characteristics

From: Serum neuron-specific enolase as predictor of outcome in comatose cardiac-arrest survivors: a prospective cohort study

  All patients
n = 97
Poor outcome
n = 72
Good outcome
n = 25
p
Age (years), mean ± SD 57 ± 16 60 ± 15 50 ± 17 0.01
Male, n (%) 75 (77) 56 (78) 19 (76) 0.85
Medical history n (%)     
Neurologic diseases 11 (11) 10 (14) 1 (4) 0.18
Cardiovascular diseases     
   Ischemic 20 (21) 19 (26) 1 (4) 0.017
   Hypertensive 34 (35) 29 (40) 5 (20) 0.067
   Congestive 12 (12) 10 (14) 2 (8) 0.44
   Arrhythmic 4 (5) 3 (4) 2 (8) 0.82
Metabolic diseases     
   Diabetes mellitus 17 (18) 17 (24) 0 0.007
Respiratory diseases     
   COPD 7 (7) 6 (8) 1 (4) 0.47
Liver diseases     
   Cirrhosis 4 (4) 4 (6) 0 0.53
Resuscitation variables     
Witnessed CA n (%) 77 (79) 57 (79) 20 (80) 0.93
In-hospital CA n (%) 30 (31) 26 (36) 4 (16) 0.06
Primary cause of CA n (%)     
   Cardiac 55 (57) 38 (53) 17 (68) 0.19
   Respiratory 17 (18) 16 (22) 1 (4) 0.04
   Other or unknown 22 (23) 17 (24) 5 (20) 0.7
Time from CA to CPR (minutes) 5.6 ± 6.9 6.3 ± 7.2 3.4 ± 5.5 0.07
   <3 n (%) 46 (51) 31 (46) 15 (65)  
   3 -5 n (%) 9 (10) 6 (9) 3 (13)  
   >5 n (%) 36 (40) 31 (46) 5 (22)  
Duration of CPR (minutes) 24.9 ± 24.2 25.7 ± 26.6 22.5 ± 15.7 0.39
   <5 n (%) 9 (9) 5 (7) 4 (16)  
   5 -15 n (%) 18 (19) 13 (18) 5 (20)  
   >15 n (%) 69 (72) 53 (75) 16 (64)  
Primary rhythm n (%)     0.09
   Asystole 55 (57) 46 (64) 9 (36)  
   VF/VT 35 (36) 21 (29) 14 (56)  
   Pulseless electrical activity 5 (5) 4 (6) 1 (4)  
   Unknown 2 (2) 1 (1,4) 1 (4)  
Number of defibrillations, mean ± SD 2.1 ± 3.1 1.9 ± 3.3 2.8 ± 2.4 0.17
Epinephrine mg mean, ± SD 5.1 ± 5.2 5 ± 4.8 5.6 ± 6.2 0.62
ICU admission     
SAPS II mean, ± SD 67 ± 15 69 ± 15 61 ± 11 0.006
Shock n(%) 59 (61) 43 (60) 16 (64) 0.7
Renal replacement therapy n(%) 15 (16) 11(15) 4 (16) 1
MOF n(%) 18 (19) 16 (22) 2 (8) 0.14
Therapeutic hypothermia n(%) 65 (67) 45 (63) 20 (80%) 0.11
  1. CA, cardiac arrest; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; CPR, cardiopulmonary resuscitation; FV ventricular fibrillation; MOF, multi organ failure according to Kraus criteria [27]; SAPS II, Simplified Acute Physiology Score type II; VT, ventricular tachycardia.