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Table 2 Clinical profile and end points of study population according to number of cardiovascular risk factor treatment targets achieved at baseline

From: Cardiovascular risk factor treatment targets and renal complications in high risk vascular patients: a cohort study

  Treatment Targets Achieved
Characteristics ≤ 1 2 3 4 ≥ 5 p value for trends
n 2813 1652 1785 593 365  
Age (years)a 57 (49,66) 57 (48,66) 56 (47,64) 58 (50,66) 55 (46,64)  
Male sex 65.6 (1845) 65.9 (1088) 67.3 (1202) 73.9 (438) 75.1 (274) 0.001
Smoking       
   Current 32.1 (902) 33.7 (556) 30.3 (541) 29.3 (174) 30.7 (112)  
   Former 41.7 (1174) 42.3 (698) 45.2 (806) 43.8 (260) 46.3 (169)  
   Never 26.2 (737) 24.1 (398) 24.5 (438) 26.8 (159) 23 (84)  
   Packyears 18 ± 0.36 19 ± 0.46 18 ± 0.45 18 ± 0.77 17 ± 0.99  
Alcohol consumption       0.001
   Never 20.8 (584) 21.7 (358) 19.9 (355) 18.2 (108) 18.1 (66)  
   Ever 9.7 (273) 9 (148) 9.8 (175) 10.8 (64) 12.9 (47)  
   Recently stopped 29.5 (831) 28.5 (470) 23.1 (412) 16.5 (98) 14.2 (52)  
   Current 40 (1125) 40.9 (676) 47.2 (843) 54.5 (323) 54.8 (200)  
History of:       
   Coronary artery disease 26.5 (745) 36.7 (607) 49 (875) 63.4 (376) 71 (259) 0.001
   Cerebrovascular disease 19.9 (561) 20.8 (343) 17.9 (319) 18.4 (109) 15.6 (57) 0.027
   Peripheral arterial disease 16.8 (472) 17.1 (283) 13 (232) 8.4 (50) 7.9 (29) 0.001
   Previous kidney disease 2.6 (74) 2.7 (44) 2.7 (48) 4.9 (29) 3.6 (13)  
   Any of the above 56.7 (1595) 64.5 (1065) 71.8 (1281) 82.1 (487) 87.1 (318) 0.001
BMI (kg m-2) 27 ± 0.08 27 ± 0.11 27 ± 0.10 27 ± 0.18 26 ± 0.23 0.001
Waist circumference (cm) 95 ± 0.22 94 ± 0.29 93 ± 0.28 94 ± 0.49 92 ± 0.62 0.001
Systolic BP (mm Hg) 154 ± 0.34 141 ± 0.44 135 ± 0.43 130 ± 0.74 119 ± 0.95 0.001
Diastolic BP (mm Hg) 91 ± 0.20 82 ± 0.26 79 ± 0.25 75 ± 0.44 71 ± 0.56 0.001
S. Glucose (mmol L-1) 6.5 ± 0.04 6.6 ± 0.06 6.1 ± 0.05 6.6 ± 0.09 5.9 ± 0.12 0.001
HbA1c (%) 6.1 ± 0.02 6.2 ± 0.03 5.9 ± 0.03 6.1 ± 0.05 5.8 ± 0.06 0.001
Total cholesterol (mmol L-1) 5.95 ± 0.02 5.45 ± 0.03 4.87 ± 0.03 4.02 ± 0.05 3.76 ± 0.06 0.001
HDL cholesterol (mmol L-1) 1.28 ± 0.01 1.25 ± 0.01 1.25 ± 0.01 1.24 ± 0.02 1.20 ± 0.02 0.001
LDL cholesterol (mmol L-1) 3.75 ± 0.02 3.23 ± 0.03 2.84 ± 0.03 2.04 ± 0.05 1.95 ± 0.06 0.001
Triglycerides (mmol L-1) 2.05 ± 0.04 2.16 ± 0.05 1.74 ± 0.05 1.65 ± 0.09 1.38 ± 0.11 0.001
Creatinine (μmol L-1) 92.3 ± 0.87 93.9 ± 1.13 92.1 ± 1.09 91.6 ± 1.88 93.1 ± 2.40  
Microalbuminuria 21.9 (616) 16.5 (272) 9.7 (174) 13.8 (82) 7.9 (29) 0.001
Proteinuria 3.6 (102) 2.8 (46) 1.4 (25) 1.9 (11) 0.8 (3)  
eGFR (mL min-1 1.73 m-2) 78.1 ± 0.33 77.6 ± 0.43 77.9 ± 0.41 78.7 ± 0.71 78.1 ± 0.91  
Haemoglobin (mmol L-1) 9.0 ± 0.01 8.8 ± 0.02 8.8 ± 0.02 8.7 ± 0.03 8.6 ± 0.04 0.001
Patients with Hypertension 84.9 (2387) 62.3 (1029) 54.2 (968) 55.3 (328) 41.4 (151) 0.001
Duration of hypertension (years) 6.0 ± 0.19 5.1 ± 0.24 4.8 ± 0.23 5.5 ± 0.40 4.5 ± 0.51 0.001
Use of BP lowering drugs 62.2 (1749) 61.8 (1021) 64.8 (1157) 75.9 (450) 79.2 (289) 0.001
Type of BP lowering drugs       
   β-blockers 29.6 (834) 36 (594) 42.7 (762) 50.9 (302) 60.8 (222) 0.001
   Diuretics 18.3 (516) 16.6 (274) 16.6 (296) 22.8 (135) 16.4 (60)  
   ACE inhibitors 20.5 (576) 22.8 (377) 26.8 (478) 33.1 (196) 32.3 (118) 0.001
   ARBs 7.2 (203) 6.6 (109) 7.1 (126) 11.5 (68) 8.5 (31)  
   Calcium channel blockers 15.2 (428) 15.7 (260) 16.1 (288) 20.2 (120) 18.1 (66) 0.015
Number of BP lowering drugs       0.001
   1 27.3 (768) 26.8 (443) 26.3 (470) 28.8 (171) 37.5 (137)  
   2 18.3 (515) 18.9 (313) 22.7 (406) 27 (160) 24.7 (90)  
   3 7.6 (214) 9.1 (151) 10.2 (182) 13.8 (82) 14.8 (54)  
   ≥ 4 1.8 (51) 2.1 (33) 2.1 (36) 3.9 (23) 1.4 (5)  
Use of Lipid lowering drugs 32.7 (920) 43.6 (721) 57 (1017) 72.7 (431) 77.3 (282) 0.001
Patients with Diabetes 24.4 (686) 28.8 (475) 17.8 (318) 34.7 (206) 20.3 (74)  
Duration of diabetes (years) 1.4 ± 0.09 1.8 ± 0.12 1.3 ± 0.12 2.2 ± 0.21 1.3 ± 0.26  
Use of oral anticoagulants 43.1 (1211) 51.7 (854) 60 (1071) 74.5 (442) 77.3 (282) 0.001
Endpoints       
End stage renal failure 35 14 5 2 1  
   Reno-atherosclerotic disease 15 3 5 1 0  
   Number of total events 50 17 10 3 1  
   Total person years 14209 8195 7766 2205 1218  
   Incidence rate per 1000 population 3.52 2.07 1.29 1.36 0.82 < 0.001
  1. Continuous variables are expressed as age and sex adjusted means with SE; categorical variables are expressed as percentages with numbers in parenthesis; amedian with interquartile range