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Table 2 Ankle Brachial Pressure Index (ABI) in terms of demographics, clinical features and risk factors

From: Peripheral artery disease assessed by ankle-brachial index in patients with established cardiovascular disease or at least one risk factor for atherothrombosis - CAREFUL Study: A national, multi-center, cross-sectional observational study

  ABI ≤0.90
(n = 106)
ABI >0.90
(n = 424)
Gender n(%)
Males 56(52.8)a 208(49.1)
Females 50(47.2)b 216(50.9)
Age groups   
50-59 years 20(18.9)+ 182(42.9)
60-69 years 49(46.2) 156(36.8)
70-79 years 37(34.9)+ 86(20.3)
Presence of risk factors   
Only 1 risk factor 5(4.7)q 53(12.5)
2 risk factors 29(27.4) 157(37.0)
3 risk factor 53(50.0)q 162(38.2)
4 risk factor 19(17.9) 52(12.3)
Past history of atherothrombotic event 62(58.5)c 111(26.2)
PAD symptoms   
Pain/discomfort while walking 75(70.8)** 155(36.6)
Pain/discomfort while standing or sitting 15(14.2)* 116(27.4)
Pain/discomfort relieve in <10 minutes 31(29.2) 117(27.5)
Positive findings on physical examination   
Pedal pulse 94(88.8) 397(93.4)
Arterial murmur 17(16.0)** 16(3.8)
Trophic changes of the foot 38(35.8)** 53(12.5)
  1. 95% CI : a16.28 - 26.14; b14.10 - 23.49 and c28.69 - 42.98; +p < 0.001 and qp < 0.05
  2. ** p < 0.001 and *p < 0.01; compared to absence of the specific finding