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Table 3 Conventional echocardiographic parameters of each group

From: Assessment of left ventricular regional function in affected and carrier dogs with duchenne muscular dystrophy using speckle tracking echocardiography

Index Unit Normal dogs Carrier dogs Affected dogs
HR bpm 92.54 ± 11.22 106.39 ± 26.22 102.16 ± 35.79
EF % 65.42 ± 8.13 67.13 ± 10.35 62.89 ± 13.05
FS % 35.04 ± 6.66 36.92 ± 8.41 33.61 ± 9.87
EDVI mL/m2 59.19 ± 19.53 69.79 ± 20.62 53.35 ± 27.03
ESVI mL/m2 15.43 ± 4.57 20.04 ± 11.02 17.87 ± 13.75
LA/Ao   1.22 ± 0.095 1.17 ± 0.14 1.08 ± 0.081
  1. EF = Ejection fraction; FS = Fractional shortening; EVDI = Left ventricular end-diastolic index; ESVI = Left ventricular end-systolic index; LA/Ao = Left atrial diameter/aortic root diameter ratio.